Birka Timeline

Birka Timeline


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

  • c. 750 - c. 800

    Pretpostavlja se da je osnovano važno trgovačko središte Vikinga Birka u Švedskoj.

  • c. 790 - c. 1100

  • c. 829 - c. 831

    Franački misionar St. Ansgar (801.-865. N. E.) Prvi je upoznao Šveđane s kršćanstvom u trgovačkom gradu Vika Birka.

  • c. 950

    Trgovačko središte Vikinga Birka u današnjoj Švedskoj naglo opada oko sredine 10. stoljeća prije Krista.

  • 1993

    UNESCO proglašava trgovačko središte Vikinga Birka u današnjoj Švedskoj Svjetskom baštinom, zajedno sa susjednim mjestom Hovgården.


Hronologija Sweden

Autorska prava © 2000-2021 Ken Polsson
internet e-mail: [email protected]
Sva prava zadržana. Dozvola je za stvaranje web linkova
na ovu web stranicu, a ne za kopiranje ovih stranica na druge web stranice.
URL: http://kpolsson.com/sweden/

Ovaj dokument je pokušaj da se okupe različiti objavljeni izvori kako bi se predstavila vremenska linija o Švedskoj.

Reference su numerisane u [zagradama], koje su ovde navedene. Broj iza tačke daje stranicu u izvoru.

Zadnje ažuriranje: 30. aprila 2018. godine.

  • Rimski povjesničar Tacit piše u latinskoj knjizi De Germania o plemenima Suiones u Skandinaviji, koji žive izvan oceana, ploveći u velikim flotama čamaca sa pramcem na oba kraja, bez jedra, koristeći vesla i jakim, lojalnim, dobro naoružanim ljudi sa šiljcima u šlemovima. [1.9] [47.18] [48.10] [267.13]
  • Egipatski astrolog i geograf Ptolomej Aleksandrijski crta svoju prvu kartu zemalja na Baltičkom moru, sa Skandiom kao najvećim i istočnim od četiri ostrva u "Germanskom okeanu". [1.10]
  • Sistem svjetionika za odbranu uspostavljen je duž istočnih obala Skandinavije i obale Finske. [48,19]
  • Prva švedska država nastaje, Kingdon od Sveara, sa središtem na Upplandu (sjeverna strana modernog Lak M älaren). [1.11] [47.18]
  • Eadgils (Adils), sin Svear King Othere (Ottar), osvaja svog oca u Švedskoj, uz pomoć Geatsa, postajući kralj. Otherein otac Ongentheow (Angantyr) također se bori s Geatima i u bitci je ubijen. [1.12]
  • Gotlanderi su se stavili pod zaštitu švedskog kralja, za plaćanje 60 srebrnih maraka godišnje i recipročnu slobodnu trgovinu. [120.50]
  • Gotski povjesničar Jordanes piše o Suehanima iz Skandinavije, s finim konjima, bogatom odjećom i trgovinom krznom. [47,19] (oko 550 [232,12])
  • (8. ili 9. stoljeće) Sveari osvajaju G ötar, tvoreći Svea rike, Svea kraljevstvo. (Vremenom se naziv skraćuje na Sverige.) [303.38]
  • Osnovan je grad Birka, na otoku Bj örk ö. [50.292]

  • Bj örn je kralj Sveara u okrugu M älar. [48.25] [232.136]
  • Kralj Bj örn od Sveara traži od franačkog kralja pomoć u uspostavljanju kršćanske religije u Švedskoj. Franački kralj Luj Pobožni, sin Karla Velikog, šalje Ansgara, kršćanskog monaha, u Birku, na jezero M älaren. Ansgar uvjerava kralja da tamo sagradi kršćansku crkvu (Rimski hruč). [1.24] [47.26] [48.34] [232.13] [267.22] [303.73]
    vvv oglas vvv


Vikinška štitna djevojka iz ožiljaka po prvi put dobiva rekonstrukciju lica

Prvi put otkrivena 1900. godine, ova 1.000-godišnja Vikinška štitna djevojka očigledno je posječena u najboljim godinama.

Kad joj je mač sišao na glavu, oštrica ju je posjekla do kosti. Naučnici koji proučavaju Viking ženska fraktura lobanje 1.000 godina kasnije još uvijek nije sigurna da li ju je udarac zaista ubio - međutim, hrpa oružja zakopana uz nju jasno daje do znanja da je ipak umrla kao ratnica.

Taj Viking, koji je živio i umro oko 900. godine, prvi put je iskopan na jednoj farmi u Soløru u Norveškoj 1900. godine. Glava joj je počivala na štitu, kostur konja s uzdama ležao je sklupčan do nogu, a tijelo joj je ukucalo tijelo mač, koplje, borbena sjekira i strijele. Kada je brzom analizom otkriveno da je kostur ženskog spola, to je odmah protumačeno kao prvi fizički primjer a djevojački štit - mitska ratnica koja se prije toga spominjala samo u srednjovjekovnim tekstovima.

Sada su po prvi put istraživači sa Univerziteta Dundee u Škotskoj koristili tehnologiju rekonstrukcije lica kako bi ponovo stvorili izgled te djevojke-uključujući ranu koja je možda okončala njenu karijeru.

Rezultati koje možete vidjeti gore i u novom dokumentarnom filmu National Geographica "Vikinške ratničke žene, "prikazuju ženu od oko 18 ili 19 godina sa snažnom vilicom, otečenim okom i čelom koje se vide u boljim danima. Prema timskoj analizi lobanje ratnika, djevojka je zadobila ozbiljnu povredu glave u skladu sa udarcem mačem - međutim, rana je pokazala znakove zacjeljivanja i možda nije bila njen krajnji uzrok smrti.

Bez obzira na to je li rana bila smrtonosna ili ne, nova rekonstrukcija sugerira da bi ovaj kostur mogao biti "prvi dokaz ikada pronađen žene Vikinga s ranom u bitci", rekla je arheologinja Ella Al-Shamahi, koja vodi novi dokumentarac, rekao je The Guardian.

To je uzbudljiva vijest, posebno za istraživače koji pokušavaju poništiti vjekovnu pretpostavku da su vikinški ratnici bili isključivo muškarci. Ovaj stereotip je doživio vlastiti udarac 2017. godine, kada je kostur Vikinga za posljednjih 70 godina pretpostavljao da je čovjek (jer je bio zatrpan gomilom oružja) dokazano kao žena nakon DNK analize.

Poput Solorove djevojke, ova žena je pokopana s nizom oružja i konja, plus niz šahovskih figura koje sugeriraju taktičku sposobnost srazmjernu s visokim vojnim dužnosnikom, istraživačima koji su došli do ovog otkrića napisao je u jednoj studiji. Ne samo da je vjerovatno bila ratnica, već je možda bila i general.

"Naši rezultati upozoravaju na opsežna tumačenja zasnovana na ... predrasudama", napisali su istraživači u svom radu iz 2017. "Naši rezultati ... ukazuju na to da su žene [Vikinzi] zaista mogle biti punopravne članice sfera u kojima dominiraju muškarci."

Ako želite odati počast djevici štita Solør, možete pronaći njenu udubljenu lubanju i dobro nošeno oružje izloženo u Muzej istorije kulture u Oslu, Norveška, do 22. novembra.

"Žena ratnica Viking" prvi put je emitirana 3. novembra na Kanal National Geographic.


14. Ko je prvi ponovo otkrio Ameriku? 1. dio

Do sada smo svi već upoznati s putovanjem Kristofora Kolumba i njegovim otkrićem "Novog svijeta" zvanog Sjedinjene Države.

Međutim, sada smo otkrili da postoji nekoliko mogućih netočnosti u vezi s ovim povijesnim događajima koje bi mogle opovrgnuti, ono što se smatralo, sastavni dio američke povijesti.

Afrika je prva od tri mogućnosti. Postoji nekoliko stvari koje ukazuju na to da je Afrikanci pobijedili Kolumba.

Prvi od njih je izveden iz stvarne blizine Afrike i Južne Amerike.

Kolumbo je u početku krenuo iz španske luke Palos, krenuvši prema Bahamima.

Daljnjim pregledom karte svijeta može se jasno utvrditi da je udaljenost koju Kolumbo prelazi u odnosu na udaljenost između Sijera Leonea i brazilskog grada Natala daleko duže putovanje.

Afrička ruta je skoro tri puta kraća od onoga što je Kolumbo navodno postigao.

Još jedan trag koji se često posjećuje dolazi s karte Piri Reis. Prema istoriji, Kolumbo nije imao pojma da će krenuti na novi kontinent, ali Piri Reis, koji je sastavljen 1513. godine (petnaest godina nakon Kolumbovog putovanja) prikazuje razumno tačno stanje Sjeverne Afrike i obale Brazila.

Treći trag fokusira se na meksičke ‘Olmečke kolosale glave’, kamene skulpture ljudskih glava stvorene od velikih bazaltnih stijena. Kaže se da ove glave prikazuju Olmeke ili prve stanovnike Amerike, međutim, imaju jaču sličnost s Afrikancima.

Konačno, tinejdžerka čiji su posmrtni ostaci pronađeni u podvodnoj pećini na meksičkom poluotoku Yucatan, možda drži ključ vjekovne misterije o tome ko je otkrio Ameriku.

Nadimak Naia (prema grčkom nazivu vodena nimfa) vjeruje se da je djevojka živjela prije 12.000 godina u Meksiku.

Smatrana jednim od najranijih poznatih stanovnika Amerike, njezina lubanja ima izrazitu sličnost s afričkom ili južnopacifičkom populacijom.

Iako nije definitivan dokaz da su Afrikanci ponovno otkrili Ameriku prije nego što su to učinili Europljani, zasigurno se čudite.


Vremenska linija

Pred veliko doba pirata

Mink Pleme se izolira od vanjskog svijeta na Zou.

Velika civilizacija dominira planetom od jednog do drugog ugla, a grade se i velika oružja za masovno uništenje. U istom stoljeću nestaju i pod misterioznim okolnostima. Jedini tragovi njihove civilizacije ostali su poneglifi.

Tokom svojih putovanja, Noland stiže na Green Bit, gdje štiti patuljke od ljudi, postaje heroj i postavlja mu se statua.

Kalendar morskog kruga 1122, 21. maja: Noland stiže na ostrvo Jaya i donosi kraj užasne bolesti od koje je Shandia postala bolesna.

Četiri godine kasnije, veliki dio Jaye je izbačen u zrak iz Knock Up Stream -a. Počinje rat između Skypieana i Shandije. ⎘ ]

Kalendar kruga mora 1127, 16. novembar: Noland dovodi kralja Lvneela u Jayu kako bi mu pokazao blago tamošnjeg naroda. Isplovljava s 3 broda, međutim, zbog oluje, dva su žrtvovana kako bi zaštitila kralja. Kad stignu na Jayu (16. novembra), tamo nema nikoga i Grad zlata je nestao. ⎘ ]

Svjetska vlada sklapa savez s otokom Fish-Man nakon vjekova diskriminacije. Institucija ropstva zabranjena je od strane Svjetske vlade radi osiguranja mirovnog sporazuma. Kraljevstvo Ryugu također je prisustvovalo svom prvom Levelyu, na koje dolazi tek 200 godina kasnije.

Vjeruje se da je Kestia koja prenosi bolest izumrla.

Morley je bio zatvoren u Impel Down -u. Kasnije je tamo kopao tunele i stvorio nivo 5.5. ⎛ ]

Sedmog dana posta, pet dana prije zimskog solsticija, Linlin uništava selo na Elbafu zbog žudnje za semlom, pri čemu ubija Jorul. Ovčja kuća napušta Elbaf.

Nešto nakon što Ovčja kuća slavi Linlin „šesti rođendan“, Linlin je ostala sama. Elbaf je postao toliko odbojan prema Linlin da su se uzdržali od izgovaranja njenog imena.

Shimotsuki Kozaburo isplovljava u East Blue, spašava mještane od bandita i pronašao je selo koje je nazvao Shimotsuki Village. ⎣ ]

Oimo i Kashii prevareni su da rade za Svjetsku vladu.

Nepoznati napadač u Florijanskom trokutu uništio je pirate Rumbar, ne ostavljajući preživjele.

Oden je zapalio kazino nakon što je stavljen na crnu listu i zabranjen mu je pristup. ⎢ ]

Charlotte Linlin rađa svoje prvo dijete, Charlotte Perospero, postavljajući temelj onoga što će postati velika Charlotte porodica. ⎥ ]

Oden je ubio nekoga i osuđen je na teške radove u kamenolomu. Kasnije se popeo na činove sve dok nije zauzeo to mjesto. ⎢ ]

Prijestonica doživljava sušu. Nakon što Kozuki Oden preusmjeri rijeku ravno u Glavni grad, poplavi se. On koristi rutu za bijeg na more. Međutim, putovanje je kratkotrajno. ⎢ ]

Kokorova repna peraja se dijeli na dvije noge. ⎫ ]

Shakuyaku odustaje od piratstva kako bi otvorio bar na arhipelagu Sabaody.

Incident sa planinskim bogom: Planinski bog napada na glavni grad Wano. Oden sječe vepra i otac ga nakon toga neizbježno protjeruje iz Cvjetne prijestolnice. ⎭ ]

Gol D. Roger i njegova posada postali su prvi koji su stigli do ostrva Lodestar: ostrva na kraju Poze Log. ⎯ ]

Doktor Hiriluk se vraća na ostrvo Drum i započinje istraživanje u potrazi za lijekom za bolest koja muči njegovu domovinu. ⎳ ]

Neki su nasilnici ranili Charlotte Brûlée, zbog čega se Katakuri zavjetovao da će sakriti usta. Η ]

Grad zadovoljstva uništili su gusari. Od tada je grad donio pravilo "Učinite sve sretnim i budite blagi prema svima". ⎝ ]

Preživjeli iz Pirata Rocks počeli su regrutirati svoje članove posade. ⎺ ]

Inuarashi i Nekomamushi izbacili su se na obalu, gdje su Kawamatsu mučeni, ali ih je Oden spasio i regrutirani kao njegovi samuraji. ⎺ ]

Shimotsuki Yasuie ima Odenovog samuraja obučenog da bude pravilan.

Chinjao se upušta u borbu s Monkey D. Garpom i na kraju mu tupcavu glavu tupi, sprječavajući ga da dođe do blaga i navodi ga da zadrži zamjerku prema Garpu. ⎼ ]

Nakon što nije uspio izazvati Grand Line, zbog čega su mnogi članovi posade poginuli ili ozlijeđeni, Bacca se vraća na Swallow Island i pali svoj rodni grad kako bi pronašao blago zakopano na otoku.

Kozuki Oden napušta Wano Country zajedno s Izom, Nekomamushijem i Inuarashijem i odlazi na probni period da se pridruži bijelobradoj gusari. Uprkos tome što nije uspio, Oden je spasio Amatsukija Tokija od problema bio dovoljan da se pridruži posadi.

Nico Olvia napušta Oharu i njezinu kćer Robin kako bi krenuli na ekspediciju Poneglyph. ⏁ ]

Herakle kreće na more da proširi svoje poimanje botaničara. Η ]

Shyarly je njen otac ostavio na čuvanje tada 15-godišnjoj Arlong. ⎿ ]

Sestre blizanke Charlotte Lola i Chiffon rođene su od Charlotte Linlin. Odmah po njihovom rođenju, Linlin izbacuje njihovog oca Pounda iz njenog kraljevstva.

Roger Pirates i Whitebeard Pirates vode bitku u borbi koja je trajala 3 dana i 3 noći. Ali svi sklopite mir četvrtog dana. ⏈ ]

Roger stiže u Skypieu i tjera Odena da ugravira poruku blizu Poneglypha. ⏉ ]

Shyarly predviđa da će se princeza sirena roditi za 10 godina. ⏊ ]

Pirati Rogera završavaju svoje putovanje do Laugh Tale -a. Nakon što je osvojio cijelu Grand Line, Gold Roger postaje poznat kao Kralj pirata. Ubrzo nakon toga, Roger raspušta svoju gusarsku posadu dopuštajući im da se vrate u mirne živote po svom izboru. ⏀ ] Η ] Kozuki Oden sanja o otvaranju granica zemlje Wano za 20 godina. ⏍ ]

Shyarly predviđa dolazak velike piratske ere koja dolazi godinu dana kasnije. ⏎ ]

Herakle i njegovi prijatelji stižu na Boin arhipelag i proučavaju tamošnje biljke. Η ]

Nakon što je čuo za vladavinu Kurozumija Orochija u Wanu i šest mjeseci racije, Oden pokušava krenuti za Orochijem kako su drugi vjerovali u njega. Međutim, Oden u jednom trenutku odlučuje plesati gol i praviti budalu od sebe 5 godina, jer se očaj ljudi pretvorio u bijes. ⏏ ]

Veliko doba pirata

Kada se to dogodilo? (Prije mnogo godina)
Prije 24 godine
Veliki gusar Gol D. Roger predaje se marincima i osuđen je na smrt. Rogerov govor prije smrti navodi gusare na Grand Line da traže njegovo skriveno blago, nazvano "One Piece". Ovaj događaj označava početak ere koja se naziva "Veliko doba pirata" (大 海賊 時代, Daikaizokujidai ? ) .

Nakon što je čuo za zarobljavanje Rogera i da će Roger biti pogubljen u roku od sedmice, Shiki divlja po cijelom Marinefordu prije nego što ga sruše Sengoku i Monkey D. Garp. Poslan je na nivo 6 Impel Down -a zbog svojih postupaka. ⏄ ]

Shanks započinje svoje putovanje kao piratski kapetan tražeći od Buggyja da se pridruži njegovoj posadi. Buggy opada, a ovo je zadnji put da se par sastaje u sljedeće 22 godine do ponovnog okupljanja tokom Marinefordskog rata.

Legendarni brodograditelj Tom suđen je za gradnju broda Gola D. Rogera, Oro Jackson. Dano mu je deset godina da dovrši svoju zamisao o Morskom vozu kako bi bio oslobođen ovog zločina.

Herakle gubi sve svoje prijatelje zbog opasnosti na otoku. Η ]

Incident u Ohari: Ohara je spaljena do temelja zbog Buster poziva koji je pozvao CP9. Profesor Clover, Olvia i svi građani Ohare su ubijeni. Nico Robin, jedina preživjela, počinje svoj život bježeći od Svjetske vlade sa 79,000,000 nagrada. Jaguar D. Saul vjerovatno umire kada ga Aokiji smrzne.

Gaimon stiže na Otok rijetkih životinja i kroz nesreću je zarobljen u škrinji s blagom. Posada ga ostavlja iza sebe.

Hatchan spašava Silvers Rayleigh na moru i kasnije se sprijateljio s njim. ⏀ ]

Shiki bježi iz Impel Down. ⏕ ]

Portgas D. Ace rođen je kao "Gol D. Ace". Njegova majka, Portgas D. Rouge, umire ubrzo nakon njegovog rođenja.

Kozuki Oden i Devet crvenih korica pokušavaju pobijediti Kaido kako bi otvorili granice zemlje Wano, ali nisu uspjeli. I Odena i njegovu suprugu Kozuki Toki pogubili su Kurozumi Orochi i Kaido. Prije svoje smrti, Toki koristi ovlaštenja Tokija Toki no Mi da pošalje svog sina s Ame no Habakirijem i njihove čuvare na sigurno 20 godina u budućnost. ⏚ ]

Inuarashi i Nekomamushi započinju svoju svađu.

Rođeni su Charlotte Decuplets, najveći od više rođenih Charlotte Linlin. ⏠ ]

U jednom incidentu na jednom ostrvu gusari drže taoce pet stotina vojnika. Gusari traže da njihov kapetan postane kralj otoka u zamjenu za oslobađanje pet stotina zarobljenika. Svjetska vlada šalje jednog trinaestogodišnjeg dječaka da okonča talačku situaciju, kada ubije pet stotina vojnika, a zatim i gusare kada otvore vatru na njega. Dječak kasnije postaje vrhunska mašina za ubijanje tajnog CP9: Rob Lucci. ⎽ ]

Neimenovani kralj neimenovanog kraljevstva posjetio je Kraljevstvo Kamabakka na otoku Momoiro. Nakon što se vratio, bio je okama. Ovaj incident je rastrgao kraljevstvo i porodicu, a kasnije su prognani. Bellett, sin ovog neimenovanog kralja, postao je gusar i kasnije će okriviti Emporio Ivankov za ovaj incident.

Portgas D. Ace i Sabo počinju štedjeti novac kako bi kupili gusarski brod, napustili Dawn Island i postali pirati.

Tony Tony Chopper rođen je na ostrvu Drum. On postaje izgnanik svog stada zbog svog plavog nosa.

Kao originalni "Corazón", Vergo prenosi naziv na Donquixote Rosinante. Η ]

Dolazi do istrebljenja naroda Flevance. Trafalgar zakon regrutiran je u Donquixote Pirates.

Vergo je napustio Donquixote Pirates kako bi otišao na tajnu misiju. Η ]

Fisher Tiger rebrendira oznaku Nebeskih Zmajeva na oslobođenim robovima-ljudima-ribama u znak Sunca i formira Sunčeve Pirati. ⏢ ]

Sestre Boa pronalaze Gloriosa, Silvers Rayleigh i Shakuyaku, koje ih odvode nazad u Amazon Lily. ⏢ ]

Po naređenju Donquixote Doflaminga, Vergo se pridružuje marincima.

Vlada je počela proganjati Nox Expedition partiju u potrazi za poneglifima, pa su postali Nox Pirati. ⏣ ]

Foxyju je oduzeta boksačka dozvola jer je uhvaćen kako vara oružjem. Η ]

Vergo ulazi u bazu G-5 nakon što je to lično zatražio. Η ]

Toto i njegov sin Koza krenuli su iz Alubarne kako bi osnovali selo u oazi Yuba.

Roditelji Shachija i Pingvina poginuli su u tsunamiju. Odgojili su ih Shachina tetka i ujak, koji ih je natjerao da rade ilegalne aktivnosti. ⎝ ]

Boa Hancock postaje nova carica Kuje i kapetan Kuja Pirata. Takođe joj je dodijeljeno mjesto u Sedam ratnih zapovjednika mora. ⏥ ]

Donquixote Rosinante i Trafalgar Law putuju na otok Minion kako bi ukrali Ope Ope no Mi kako bi spasili Lawov život, ali ih je otkrila porodica Donquixote nakon što je slučajno poslao obavještajno pismo Vergu, članu Donflamingove posade na tajnom zadatku kao marinac. Rosinate ubija njegov brat i ostrvo prolazi kroz kavez za ptice, koji ubija sve osim dječaka koji je bio član lokalne gusarske posade.

Doflamingo je kasnije regrutovao Sugar i Moneta u svoju porodicu. ⏦ ]

Sanjija je otac Vinsmoke sudac izbacio iz porodice Vinsmoke u dobi od 8 godina i dozvoljeno mu je da napusti Germansko kraljevstvo dok oni napadaju državu u East Blueu. Ukrcava se na obližnji kruzer koji se zove Orbit i tamo radi kao kuhar pripravnik naredne 2 godine. ⏧ ]

Dok luta po Ostrvu lastavica, Bepa maltretiraju dva delinkventa po imenu Shachi i Penguin. Trafalgar Law svjedoči premlaćivanju, a Shachi i Penguin se svađaju s njim. Law ih pobjeđuje i Bepo mu se pridružuje. ⏨ ]

Kawamatsu i Onimaru počinju skrivati ​​oružje od pljačkaša grobova. Na kraju, kappa biva zaključana u Udonu nakon što je pokušala nabaviti hranu iz Cvjetnog kapitala i svakodnevno jede trulu ribu sljedećih 13 godina. ⏩ ] ⏪ ]

Crvenokosa Shanks, tada dvadesetsedmogodišnjakinja, stiže u Luffyev rodni grad i odlučuje ostati tamo. Luffy slučajno pojede Gomu Gomu no Mi, dajući mu gumene moći i nemogućnost plivanja. Higuma je pojeo Morski kralj u incidentu koji uključuje Luffyja i Shanksa. Shanks napušta Luffyev rodni grad nakon što je tamo boravio gotovo godinu dana. ⏫ ]

Ubrzo nakon Shanksovog odlaska, njegov djed Monkey D. Garp odvodi Luffyja na trening s Curly Dadanom i upoznaje njegovog usvojenog brata Portgasa D. Acea. Luffy uskoro osniva bratstvo s Aceom i Saboom na osnovu njihove zajedničke želje da postanu gusari.

Zgrožen Porchemyjevim neuspjehom, Bluejam puca u Porchemyja.

Nebeski Zmajevi dolaze u posjet Goa Kraljevstvu na Dawn Island. Pirati Bluejam zapalili su Sivi terminal u pripremi za svoj dolazak, ali većinu onih koji tamo borave spasili su da ih Monkey D. Dragon i revolucionari ne spale.

Sabo napada svjetski plemić i smatra se mrtvim. Spašava ga Zmaj, ali gubi sjećanje i pridružuje se revolucionarima.

Gusarski kapetan Mont Blanc Cricket stiže u Jayu. On ostaje da traži istinu o tome da li je njegov predak bio lažov kako bi se mogao osloboditi porodičnog prokletstva. Posada ga napušta ubrzo nakon toga.

Poznata glumica Victoria Cindry umire u tragičnoj nesreći. Dr. Hogback upoznaje zapovjednika mora Gecka Moria, zajedno s Absalomom i Peronom.

Hatchan posljednji put posjećuje Shakuyaku i Silvers Rayleigh nakon što su se pridružili Sun Piratesu.

Pirati sa Sunca upoznaju Koalu, mladu djevojku koja je bila robinja Nebeskih zmajeva. Fisher Tiger preimenuje svoj robni žig u žig sunca, čineći je prvim čovjekom koji nosi amblem Sunčevih pirata.

Po povratku Koale na rodno ostrvo, Fisher Tiger je upao u zasjedu od strane grupe marinaca predvođenih kontraadmiralom Jagodom. Nakon što je jedva pobjegao s otoka s pomorskim brodom koji mu je ukrala posada, Tiger odlučuje umrijeti umjesto da primi transfuziju ljudske krvi na brodu.

Ljut zbog Tigrove smrti, Arlong se vraća na ostrvo Foolshout kako bi se osvetio ljudima koji su izdali Tigra, da bi ga porazio i zarobio viceadmiral Borsalino. Zatim je zatvoren u Impel Down.

Zeff se vraća s Grand Linea. Oluja potopi Orbit i Zeffov piratski brod. Zeff i Sanji nasukani su na otoku s vrlo malo hrane 85 dana i na kraju su spašeni. Baratie je otvoren.

Kuina i Roronoa Zoro obećali su jednom od njih da će postati najveća osoba s mačevima. Nakon što Kuina umre, Koushirou daje Zoru Wado Ichimonji da postigne svoj cilj. Η ]

Doflamingo namješta Riku Dolda III i njegove vojnike za razne zločine nad vlastitim građanima prije nego što su se nametnuli i zauzeli mjesto kralja Dressrose.

Arlong napada Cocoyasi Village i počinje graditi svoje carstvo. On je ubio Bell-mèrea, a Nami je regrutirana u Arlong Pirates.

Tom završava Morski voz, Puffing Tom. Njemu i ostalima trebalo je dodatne četiri godine da dodaju pjesme na druga ostrva.

CP5, predvođen Spandamom, uokviruje Toma, koji je odvezen u Enies Lobby. Cutty Flam se smatra mrtvim nakon pokušaja zaustavljanja morskog vlaka koji je prevozio Toma.

Princezu Shirahoshi dodiruje Vander Decken IX, čineći je metom svojih moći.

Kraljica Otohime je ubijena, što je izazvalo pobunu na ostrvu Fish-Man.

Hody krade energetske tablete iz Tamate Box -a i daje ostavku vojsci Neptuna. U slučaju nove krađe, ministar prava stavlja eksploziv u kutiju koja će eksplodirati u trenutku otvaranja.

Shirahoshi je zaključana unutar tornja s tvrdom školjkom u palači Ryugu kako bi je zaštitila od Deckenovih darova projektila i prijetnji.

Pekoms predvode ostale minke Nox Piratesa koji nisu mogli nastaviti svoje putovanje, ostavljajući samo Pedra i Zepa. Kasnije su Pekoms i njegova grupa stigli na teritoriju Velike Mame. Tamo su im spašeni životi i oni su se starali o njoj. ⏮ ]

Minatomo u zalagaonici prodaje nacrte Kaidove vile. Nešto kasnije, Ashura Doji je ukrao nacrte iz Rakude i s njima potrčao u Kuri. ⏯ ] 𖏜 ]

Nakon što je čuo za Davyja Jonesa, Foxy počinje skupljati posadu kroz Davy Back Fights. Η ]

Uprkos upozorenju Ašure Dojija da čeka, mnogi njegovi prijatelji odlaze u Onigašimu da se bore protiv Kaida. Na kraju su ubijeni. 𖏝 ]

Koala se pridružuje Revolucionarnoj armiji.

Gan Fall je zamijenjen kao Bog Skypiee od strane Enela u državnom udaru.

U Mary Geoise -u se održava sastanak sa Svjetskim vijećem na kojem se raspravlja o Zmaju i njegovom revolucionarnom pokretu.

Hiriluk umire nakon njegove smrti, Tony Tony Chopper odlazi živjeti s doktorom Kurehom, koji ga počinje učiti kako biti pravi liječnik. ⎳ ]

Dva obožavatelja knjige o Mont Blanc Nolandu, Masira i njegov brat Shoujou, pojavljuju se u Jayi kako bi pomogli Mont Blanc Cvrčku u njegovim nastojanjima da riješi stvari sa svojim pretkom.

Rob Lucci, Kaku i Kalifa iz CP9 odlaze na tajni zadatak i pridružuju se kompaniji Galley-La kako bi saznali više o Plutonovim planovima. Blueno ide s njima u Water 7, ali umjesto toga dobiva posao barmena.

Nico Robin angažiran je od strane Crocodilea u Baroque Works -u kao njegov partner.

U Arabasti počinje suša, a kralj se sumnjiči da ju je uzrokovao upotrebom plesnog praha.

Axe-Hand Morgan je počašćen što je doveo zloglasnog "kapetana Kura" i počinje svoj uspon na vlast u marincima. 𖏠 ]

Porodica Franky počinje sakupljati 200,000,000.

Kayini roditelji umiru. Ubrzo nakon toga, Kaya se razboli. 𖏣 ]

Koby slučajno završava kao dečko za gusara Alvidu. 𖏤 ]

Prkos dr. Vegapunku, Cezar Clown izvodi eksperiment koji uključuje kemijsko naoružanje na Punk Hazardu. Eksperiment uništava čitav ekosistem otoka i ostavlja mnoge zatvorenike paraliziranim.

Selo Amigasa doživljava glad. Portgas D. Acea i njegovu posadu zarobili su seljani Amigase, koji su im ukrali hranu. Pirati su se oslobodili, ali su mogli ostati u selu kao gost nekoliko sedmica. Tama se sviđa Aceu i odlučuje postati očaravajući kunoichi kad se vrati.

Chouchouov vlasnik odlazi u bolnicu i nikad se ne vraća. ⏭ ]

Mocha i Sind su oteti i dovedeni u Punk Hazard kako bi bili prva dva subjekta za eksperiment gigantifikacije. 𖏥 ] 𖏦 ]

Cavendish se u Novom svijetu pojavljuje kao moćni novi super novajlija.

Događaji unaprijed

Napomena: Ovo je napisano kao da se osvrćete na događaje. Imajte na umu da ljudi iz One Piece svijeta možda ne znaju događaje kako im čitatelj govori. Glavni primjer su događaji Arabasta -e i svjetskih vlada koje se prikrivaju.

Zoro spašava Riku od Sora, Helmepovog psa. Zbog prkosa i ubistva Sora, Helmeppo je Zora razapeo devet dana bez hrane i vode. Luffy spašava Zora i regrutira ga za prvog člana posade. Koby se pridružuje marincima.

Nami pristaje putovati s Luffy radi obostrane udobnosti. Luffy, Nami i Zoro pobjeđuju Buggyja i njegovu posadu u Orange Townu, dobivajući kartu Grand Linea.

Klahadore planira ubiti Kayu i naslijediti njeno bogatstvo, ali slamnati šeširi pomažu Usoppu da porazi njega i njegovu posadu. Oni primaju Going Merry od Merryja, a Usopp se pridružuje njihovoj posadi. Uspostavljen je veseli roger Pirates of Hat Pirates.

Zoro ima dvije katane koje je slomio Dracule Mihawk, a zatim Luffy pobjeđuje Don Kriega na Baratieju, a Sanji se pridružuje slamnatim šeširima.

U selu Cocoyasi, Arlong raskida ugovor s Nami i nakon toga je poražen zajedno sa cijelom posadom. Nami se ovaj put zaista pridružuje Slamnatim šeširima.

Porazivši troje ljudi s visokim blagodatima, Luffy od marinaca prima svoju prvu nagradu: 30 milijuna trbuha. Slamnati šeširi ulaze u Grand Line.

Thatch otkriva Yami Yami no Mi. Marshall D. Teach ga ubija i krade voće. Portgas D. Ace napušta Moby Dicka da ga pronađe.

Crnobradi i njegova posada napadaju Drum Island. Wapol bježi u strahu.

Državni udar dovodi do preuzimanja Vire.

Februar 18: Η ] Luffy i Usopp stvaraju Snjegovića i Snježnu kraljicu, ali oni bivaju uništeni u svađi.

19. februara: Η ] Igaram stvara tri lutke Honohonouenchi i pokušava se uputiti prema Arabasta, ali Miss All Sunday diže u zrak njegov brod.

Slamnati šeširi se sprijateljuju s Nefertari Vivi, pobjeđuju Wapola, regrutiraju Tonyja Tonyja Choppera, upoznaju Dorryja i Brogyja i odlaze u Arabasta. Dalton je imenovan za vladara preimenovanog kraljevstva Sakura. Kad demontiraju barokna djela i unište Krokodila, vlada to zataškava. Krokodila uhapse Tashigi i Smoker u Arabasta, obojica su unaprijeđeni zbog svojih napora. Suša prestaje i u zemlju se vraća mir. Princeza Vivi se vraća nakon što je nestala prije nekoliko godina. Nico Robin pridružuje se slamnatim šeširima.

Enel je poražen od slamnatih šešira. Gan Fall se vraća kao Bog Skypiee. Rat između Skypieansa i Shandije prestaje.

Foxy's Davy Back Fight niz pobjeda, nakon 920 pobjeda, je prekinut.

Vođa CP9 Spandam slučajno poziva Buster Call u Enies Lobby, uništavajući ostrvo pravde. Za uništavanje se okrivljuju slamnati šeširi, svima kojima su dodijeljene nagrade.

Shu koristi svoje moći Sabi Sabi no Mi da zahrđa Yubashiri.

25. ožujka Η ]: Proizvedeno je Thousand Sunny. Franky se pridružuje slamnatim šeširima.

Malog mafijaškog lupeža, poznatog kao Duval, love lovci na glave kao rezultat njegove upečatljive sličnosti sa Sanjijevim novim plakatom za nagrade. Marinci iz zapovjedništva marinaca također su raspoređeni nakon njega po nalogu Vinsmoke sudije. 𖏩 ]

Shanks stupa u kontakt sa Bijelobradom. Uprkos naporima marinaca, njih dvoje se susreću. Dva dana prije njihovog sastanka, "Fire Fist" Ace je poražen od Blackbearda. Predat je marincima, koji su odredili datum njegovog pogubljenja. Svjetska vlada poziva Sedam ratnih zapovjednika mora da se okupe zajedno s marincima za rat protiv Bijelobradog. Crnobradi je imenovan na mjesto zapovjednika mora zbog njegove uloge u dovođenju Asa.

Ryuma daje Shusui Roronoi Zoro. Preko hiljadu sjena koje je oteo vojskovođa Gecko Moria vraćeno je njihovim originalnim vlasnicima. Većina osumnjičenih Moria je ipak poražena, Moria zadržava status zapovjednika i ne objavljuju se izvještaji o takvom porazu. Bruk se pridružuje Slamnatim šeširima.

Na arhipelagu Sabaody Luffy udara svjetskog plemića u lice, a Bartholomew Kuma šalje svakog člana Pirata od slamnatog šešira da leti na zasebno ostrvo.

Luffy postaje prvi mužjak koji je kročio na Amazon Lily.

Monkey D. Luffy, kapetan Piratsa sa slamnatim šeširom, provaljuje u Impel Down, odakle Buggy pokušava pobjeći. 241 zatvorenik uspješno je pobjegao iz zatvora, što je bio prvi masovni proboj u njegovoj historiji. U međuvremenu Crna Brada napada Impel Down kako bi oslobodila i regrutirala bivšeg glavnog tamničara Impel Down -a, Shiryu, i nekoliko osuđenika s apokrifnog nivoa 6: Vasco Shot, Catarina Devon, Sanjuan Wolf i Avalo Pizarro.

Manticore iz Impel Down-a bježi iz zatvora i hvataju ga pirati velike mame u kojoj ga Charlotte Mont-d'Or zapečati u knjizi.

Događa se Marinefordski rat na vrhu. I Luffyevo i Aceovo naslijeđe otkrivaju se javnosti. Portgas D. Ace dies when Admiral Akainu's magma fist goes through his chest. Edward Newgate dies standing up at Marineford. Marshall D. Teach somehow steals and assimilates Whitebeard's Devil Fruit power, making him the only human known to wield the power of two Devil Fruits. The battle is brought to an end with the arrival of Shanks and the Red Hair Pirates. Other pirates start to invade Whitebeard's territory after hearing of his death.

Monkey D. Garp and Sengoku resign from the Marines.

Monkey D. Luffy, Jinbe, Trafalgar Law, and the Heart Pirates are the first males ever permitted to set foot on Amazon Lily, an island that is usually off-limits to men.

Luffy, Jinbe, and Silvers Rayleigh return to Marineford. They sailed around the island once, Luffy rang the Ox Bell sixteen times and gave a silent prayer, and they left once again on the Kuja Pirates' ship.

The original childhood lab of Dr. Vegapunk on Karakuri Island explodes after Franky presses a self-destruct button in the lab. This event becomes known to the world as the "Nightmare of Baldimore". Soon after that, Franky causes another incident, which would become known as the Legend of the Sacred Burning Beast of Baldimore.

Monkey D. Luffy decides to disband the Straw Hat Pirates for two years in order to allow the crew to train and become stronger.

Buggy is invited into the Seven Warlords of the Sea and accepts.

Sabo regains his memory of Luffy and Ace before he decides to find the Mera Mera no Mi.

During the timeskip

When did it happen? (Years Ago)
1 year ago
A great battle takes place between the Marines and the combined forces of Duval and his Rosy Life Riders, Hatchan, and Bartholomew Kuma, over the Straw Hat Pirates' ship, the Thousand Sunny. In the end, the Marines were forced to retreat, with the Rosy Life Riders, Hatchan, and Kuma sustaining serious damage. The Thousand Sunny was left unharmed.

An argument occurs between Admirals Aokiji and Akainu for the vacant position of Fleet Admiral. The two engage in a duel to the death on Punk Hazard, which lasted for ten days and left both men severely wounded. In the end, Sakazuki wins and is promoted to the position of fleet admiral. This results in the transfer of Marineford to the New World, the relocation of the G-1 branch, the resignation of Aokiji from the Marines, and the reconstruction of the Marines. The battle causes one side of Punk Hazard to be permanently embroiled in flames, leaving the other half permanently frozen over. The World Military draft is held, and the two vacant Admiral positions are filled by Issho and Ryokugyu.

After defeating the remnants of the Whitebeard Pirates in the Payback War, Marshall D. Teach acquires great notoriety in the New World by conquering Whitebeard's former sphere of influence, attacking and murdering Devil Fruit users, and stealing their abilities to increase the abilities of his crew, resulting in him usurping Whitebeard's previous status as one of the Four Emperors.

Bartolomeo appears in the New World as a powerful new Super Rookie.

Trafalgar Law obtains a bounty of 440,000,000 for unknown reasons. After sending the disembodied (but living) hearts of 100 pirates to Marineford, he is appointed to a Warlord of the Sea position. 𖏪 ]

X Drake allies with the Beast Pirates and aides in the destruction of Amigasa Village. 𖏫 ]

Capone Bege starts planning the assassination of Big Mom. 𖏬 ]

Komurasaki gradually tricks Bingo into giving away all of his money, and then later spends it all. 𖏭]

Marshall D. Teach acquires the status of Emperor.

Current Storyline

When did it happen? (Years Ago)
Current Storyline
The prince and king of the Goa Kingdom die of a suspicious death, resulting in Sterry ascending to the throne. 𖏮]

Kin'emon, Kiku, Raizo, Kanjuro, and Kozuki Momonosuke arrive in the Wano Country of this year from 20 years ago, having been sent forward through time by the powers of the Toki Toki no Mi. While Kiku stays at Wano, the rest left to recruit allies. 𖏯]

The Fake Straw Hat Crew recruit famous pirates but are unmasked by Sentomaru, who has been promoted into the Marines. The real Straw Hat Pirates reunite at Sabaody Archipelago and word gets out that they're back in action. Upon pursuit by marines, they escape with their coated ship into the sea. With help from various groups of people, the Straw Hats set off for Fish-Man Island.

As punishment for helping the Straw Hats, Bartholomew Kuma was enslaved by the Celestial Dragons some point later. Η ]

Madam Shyarly of the Mermaid Cafe predicts the destruction of Fish-Man Island at the hands of Straw Hat Luffy. Meanwhile, Hody Jones, captain of the New Fish-Man Pirates, and Vander Decken IX, captain of the Flying Pirates, form an alliance and initiate a rebellion against the Ryugu Kingdom. Princess Shirahoshi manifests her ability to summon Sea Kings in order to stop Noah from falling onto Fish-Man Island. She is revealed to be the ancient weapon, Poseidon. Jinbe donates blood to Luffy in the very first human-fish-man blood transfusion since it was outlawed.

Jinbe promises to join the Straw Hats once he finished taking care of his duties.

Neptune frees the human pirates makes the Fish-Man subordinates work under him and arrests Hody, officers of the New Fish-Man Pirates, and Vander Decken. Some of the human pirates were later captured by G-5.

The Straw Hat Pirates are targeted by Big Mom after Luffy challenges her and declares himself as the future protector of Fish-Man Island. Luffy gives Tamago and Pekoms the treasure that Caribou stole, including the Tamate Box with an explosive inside of it.

The Straw Hats form an alliance with the Heart Pirates in order to dethrone Kaido. Smiley eats the candy, causing a poisonous gas that can petrify people to spread across Punk Hazard. The group defeats and kidnaps Caesar Clown at Punk Hazard before continuing to Dressrosa in order to take down Donquixote Doflamingo. Both Vergo and Monet die.

G-5 take the children from Punk Hazard to see Vegapunk.

An alliance between the Kid, On Air and Hawkins Pirates to depose the Emperor Shanks is formed.

Jinbe places Caribou in a G-5 Marine base. The Caribou Pirates tried to rescue him, but got captured as he sails free. Caribou ends up on one of Kaido’s favorite islands. The Caribou Pirates meet up on the island with a Marine ship. They defeat Scotch and destroyed the factory, but Caribou is taken by X Drake and is later taken prisoner in Wano.

Zou is invaded by Jack and his division of the Beasts Pirates, who cause mass devastation while hunting the ninja, Raizo.

Kuzan becomes an affiliate of the Blackbeard Pirates.

All toys on the island of Dressrosa return to their original forms after Sugar loses consciousness. Sabo, the second-in-command of the Revolutionary Army, consumes the Mera Mera no Mi, which previously belonged to his late brother, Portgas D. Ace. Donquixote Doflamingo is defeated, his crew is arrested, and reign over Dressrosa is returned to the Riku Family. Doflamingo's fall sends many nations that depended on him into chaos, allowing the Revolutionaries to increase their victories.

Seven crews pledge their allegiance to the Straw Hat Pirates, forming the Straw Hat Grand Fleet, which consists of over 5000 members. Due to the events from their reunion at Sabaody Archipelago until Dressrosa, all of the Straw Hats receive new bounties, with updated pictures on their posters, and Sanji's status is changed to "Wanted Only Alive".

After confronting Kaido, the On Air Pirates and Hawkins Pirates become subordinates of the Beasts Pirates while Kid remains prisoner.

Jack attacks Doflamingo's escort. He sinks two of the ships, but is ultimately defeated. He survives, and the newspapers falsely report him as dead.

The Blackbeard Pirates attack the Revolutionaries' island base of Baltigo, resulting in the base being completely destroyed in which the new base is located in Momoiro Island. 𖏰]

Brook of the Straw Hat Pirates creates copies of Charlotte Linlin's Road Poneglyph after infiltrating her storeroom, making the Straw Hats one of the few factions in the world to have possession of one at the time.

The Tamate Box explodes, causing Whole Cake Chateau to fall.

Pedro blows himself up with dynamite to have the Straw Hats move forward.

Morgans reports the details of the Sanji Retrieval Team's successful raid against the Emperors Charlotte Linlin to the entire world. Morgans also reveals to the world of Sanji's heritage, the formation of the Straw Hat Grand Fleet, and the addition of the former Warlord of the Sea Jinbe to the Straw Hat Pirates. Following this news, Germa Kingdom is officially expelled from the Government for their attempted alliance. It is also reported that Luffy is considered by certain parts of the world to be a fifth Emperor. 𖏱]

March 3 Η] : Luffy washes up on Kuri Beach in Wano Country and saves Tama from a group of Beasts Pirates.

Shimotsuki Yasuie gets executed. This year’s Levely ends. Roronoa Zoro makes a deal to replace Shusui with Enma. Charlotte Linlin and Kaido decide to form a temporary alliance with their pirate crews.

The Seven Warlords of the Sea system is abolished and the Marines start to attack the former Warlords. 𖏳]

During the Fire Festival on Onigashima the Ninja-Pirate-Mink-Samurai Alliance affiliates begin an attack. Kurozumi Orochi is betrayed. Kurozumi Kanjuro is killed by Kozuki Oden's retainers.


Cuerdale Hoard (United Kingdom)

The Cuerdale Hoard is an enormous Viking silver treasure of some 8000 silver coins and pieces of bullion, discovered in Lancashire, England in 1840 in the region called the Danelaw.

Cuerdale is only one of several Viking hoards found in the Danelaw, a region owned by the Danes in the 10th century AD, but is the largest found yet to date. Weighing almost 40 kilograms (88 pounds), the hoard was found by workmen in 1840, where it had been buried in a lead chest sometime between AD 905 and 910.

Coins in the Cuerdale Hoard include a large number of Islamic and Carolingian coins, numerous local Christian Anglo-Saxon coins and smaller amounts of Byzantine and Danish coins. Most of the coins are of English Viking coinage. Carolingian (from the empire established by Charlemagne) coins in the collection came from Aquitaine or a Netherland mint Kufic dirhams come from the Abbasid dynasty of the Islamic civilization.

The oldest coins in the Cuerdale Hoard are dated to the 870s and are the Cross and Lozenge type made for Alfred and Ceolwulf II of Mercia. The most recent coin in the collection (and thus the date usually assigned to the hoard) was minted in 905 AD by Louis the Blind of the West Franks. Most of the rest can be assigned to the Norse-Irish or the Franks.

The Cuerdale Hoard also contained hack-silver and ornaments from the Baltic, Frankish, and Scandinavian regions. Also present was a pendant known as "Thor's hammer", a stylized representation of the Norse god's weapon of choice. Scholars are unable to say whether the presence of both Christian and Norse iconography represents the owner's brand of religion or the materials were simply scrap for bullion.


Klaus Freisinger

There is only a handful of WH sites associated with the Vikings, and the major reason for this seems to be that they just didn't leave that many traces. Their buildings were made of wood, so the major Viking remains are runestones and burial mounds. These are also what you can see in this site, spread over 2 islands in Lake Mälar, just outside Stockholm. Birka, on the island of Björkö, is only reachable by boat, and there is a daily excursion boat leaving from Stadshuset. The island includes a decent museum with many findings (although most are in Stockholm museums), and the guided tours take you to the major burial mounds and modern additions (a chapel and a large cross dedicated to St. Ansgar, who - unsuccessfully - tried to bring Christianity to Birka). Birka was a large trading post in its heyday, and one of only a handful of Viking-age cities. The king, however, resided in Hovgarden, on the island of Adelsö, just a short boat ride away. I wasn't really sure how to include this in my travel plans, but in the end, it was pretty easy. Just 30 minutes after the boat to Stockholm left, another boat made the trip to Adelsö, and I could explore the site on my own. There are burial mounds there as well, plus a few scattered runestones, which I didn't see in Birka. So I think both islands are worth a visit, even if the bus trip from Adelsö back to Stockholm took over an hour. This is one of the few insights into authentic Viking life that one can get anywhere - and there is a realistic imitation of a Viking settlement close to the museum in Birka.


4 Viking Parliament

For years, the exact location of a Viking Parliament in Dingwall, Scotland, have eluded archaeologists and historians alike. It was only in 2013 when it was finally located. After excavating for more than a year, archaeologists hit the jackpot&mdashthey unearthed the remains of the lost Viking parliament at a parking lot known as the Cromartie Memorial car park.

More popularly known as a &ldquoThing,&rdquo the Viking parliament was built on the instructions of a powerful Viking earl named Thorfinn the Mighty. Aside from the Thing, Thorfinn also commissioned the construction of a ditch, an aqueduct, and a road.

This discovery has elicited excitement among historians in the United Kingdom since it could &ldquohelp them learn more about the Norse Vikings, who battled for control of land across the north of Scotland.&rdquo


The Sami are one of the indigenous people of the world. The first document to mention the Sami in Sweden was written almost 2,000 years ago. Inland parts of upper Norrland are known to have been inhabited even longer, however – for close to 10,000 years.

The Viking Age (800–1050 AD) was characterised by a significant expansion of activity, in Sweden’s case largely toward the east. Many Viking expeditions set off from Sweden to both plunder and trade along the Baltic coast and the rivers that stretched deep into present-day Russia. The Vikings traveled as far as the Black and Caspian Seas, where they developed trading links with the Byzantine Empire and the Arab kingdoms. Christianity first reached Sweden with a mission led by Ansgar, who visited in the 9th century, but the country was not converted to Christianity until the 11th century.

There are more than 2,500 rune stones in Sweden, with messages dating from the 5th century to the mid-12th century, making them the oldest preserved Swedish documents. Relatives often had stones erected in memory of a dead family member.


History of Venetian Masks

Venetian masks have a long history of protecting their wearer's identity during promiscuous or decadent activities. Made for centuries in Venice, these distinctive masks were formed from paper-mache and wildly decorated with fur, fabric, gems, or feathers. Eventually, Venetian masks re-emerged as the emblem of Carnevale (Venetian Carnival), a pageant and street fair celebrating hedonism.
Venetian masks have been worn in Venice, Italy, since antiquity.
Unlike the vast majority of their counterparts in contemporary European nations, each citizen in Venice enjoyed a high standard of living. Everyone was part of the great economic machine that was the Republic. Venice was capitalizing on its position, on its gains, long before its contemporaries had realized the value of a market economy. With a level of social wealth unequaled since, the citizens of Venice developed a unique culture&mdashone in which the concealing of the identity in daily life became paramount to daily activity. Part of the secrecy was pragmatic: there were things to do, people to see, and perhaps you might not want others to know what deals you were cutting. After all, the city is relatively small.
Additionally, the masks served an important social purpose of keeping every citizen on an equal playing field. Masked, a servant could be mistaken for a nobleman&mdashor vice versa. State inquisitors and spies could question citizens without fear of their true identity being discovered (and citizens could answer without fear of retribution). The morale of the people was maintained through the use of masks&mdashfor with no faces, everyone had voices.
As a result of the concealment of identity, however, people naturally found themselves taking advantage of the situation. The society grew ever more decadent. The immense amount of travelers coming through the city meant that sexual promiscuity was commonplace and acceptable. Gambling went on all day and night in the streets and houses, even in convents. Women's clothing became more revealing homosexuality, while publicly condemned, was embraced by the populace. Even the nuns and monks of the clergy, bejeweled and dressed in the latest imported creations, wore masks and engaged in the same acts as the majority of their fellow citizens. Rome turned a blind eye, as long as the Republic continued to make generous donations.
The Republic fell into a state of luxury, indolence, and moral decay. Eventually the wearing of masks in daily life was banned and limited only to certain months of the year. During the last year of the Republic's existence, this period extended for over three months from December 26. After the 1100s, the masquerade went through periods of being outlawed by the Catholic Church, especially during holy days. Their policy leads to eventual acceptance when they declared the months between Christmas and Shrove Tuesday free for Venetian mask - attired decadence. This period evolved into Carnival, the pre-Lent celebration meaning, "remove meat." Although Venetian Carnival lost popularity as Venice's cultural production faltered during the Enlightenment, it was officially reintroduced in 1979.
The modern celebration of Venetian Carnival has reinvigorated the art and craft of making Venetian masks. Recognizable types of Venetian masks continue to dazzle tourists, dancers, and pageant participants during Carnival and year round. Wearing Venetian masks has spread to Halloween masquerade balls and what North and South Americans call Mardi Gras, but they always carry their rich Italian history.

In general all Venetian masks may be classified under two major groups:

COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE MASKS

These masks date back to the second half of the sixteenth century and represent characters, ethnic traditions, professions and trades closely tied to the different cities of Italy personified by professional actors in the Commedia dell'Arte (means Art of Comedy in Italian)

Commedia dell'Arte was a form of improvisational theater, which began in the 16th century and was popular until the 18th century, although it is still performed today. Traveling teams of players would set up an outdoor stage and provide amusement in the form of juggling, acrobatics, and, more typically, humorous plays based on a repertoire of established characters with a rough storyline, called Canovaccio.
Troupes occasionally would perform directly from the back of their traveling wagon, but this is more typical of Carro di Tespi, a sort of traveling theatre that dates back to antiquity.

The performances were improvised around a repertory of stock conventional situations, adultery, jealousy, old age, love, some of which can be traced in Roman comedies of Plautus and Terence. The dialogue and action could easily be made topical and adjusted to satirize local scandals, current events, or regional tastes, mixed with ancient jokes and punch lines. Characters were identified by costume,masks, and even props, such as the slapstick.
Male Commedia dell'Arte characters were depicted by actors wearing masks representing regions or towns. The female characters, however, were usually not masked. In fact, the roles were often played by males in women's clothing and wigs, in travesti, as it is called.

Thus, the Commedia dell'Arte, with its stock situations and characters and improvised dialogue, has shown the way to many other forms of drama, from pantomime and Punch and Judy - which features debased forms of the commedia characters - to the modern animated cartoon, situation comedy, and even professional wrestling. The characters and tropes of the Commedia have also been used in modern novels, from sword and sorcery to literary works, notably by Michael Moorcock in his Jerry Cornelius stories that culminate with the Guardian prize-winning The Condition of Muzak.

ARLECCHINO is a most popular of Zanni or comic servant characters from the Italian Commedia dell'Arte. Arlecchino traditionally wore an outfit of patches and rags, which evolved into the lozenge-shaped motley seen today. His mask was black with a large red blemish on his forehead similar to a boil.
The primary aspect of Arlecchino was his physical agility. While generally depicted as quite stupid and greedy (in a gastronomic sense) his acrobatics were what an audience expected to see. The character would never simply perform an action when the addition of a cartwheel or back flip would spice up the movement.
Within these restrictions the character was terribly elastic. Various troupes and actors would alter his behavior to suit style, personal preferences, or even the particular scenario being performed.
He is typically cast as the servant of an innamorato or vecchio much to the detriment of his master's plans. Arlecchino often had a love interest in the person of Colombina, and his lust for her was only superseded by his desire for food or fear of his master.
The origins of the name are uncertain. Some say it comes from Dante's Commedia where one of devils is called Alichino. Others say it could come from Harlenkoenig, a Scandinavian hero. In another hypothesis it comes from Harlay, an English gentleman of the court of Henri III, who had protected an Italian actor.

BRIGHELLA is a comic, masked character from the Commedia dell'Arte, a money-grubbing villain and a partner of Arlecchino. His costume consisted of loosely fitting, white smock and pants with green trim and was often equipped with a battachio or slapstick. He wore a green half-mask displaying a look of preternatural lust and greed.
He is loosely categorized as one of the Zanni or servant characters though he often was portrayed as a member of the middle class such as a tavern owner. He is essentially Arlecchino's smarter and much more vindictive older brother. As is typical of those who have risen from poverty, he is often most cruel to those beneath him on the social ladder.
He is an inveterate schemer. Frequently paired with other Zanni as his assistants or employees, Brighella's plans were frequently foiled by their own ineptitude.

BURRATINO is a minor character from the Commedia dell'arte, one from the Zanni class.He is often not a servant, but is not well to do either. He is the quick witted earthy fellow who might be the innkeeper or grocer. If he is not a servant, he is often friends with them.
Though only mildly popular on the stage, Burrattino found his real fame in the marionette theater. According to Pierre Louis Ducharte, Burrattino puppet's influence in Italy was so great that "by the end of the sixteenth century, all marionettes operated by strings and a wire were called burattini, instead of bagatelli or fantoccini, as they had been known up to that time."

CAPITAN SCARAMOUCHE either a young man of adventure or a quite old mariner, a boasting, swashbuckling officer, often Spanish, dressed-to-kill in cape, feathered hat, high boots, with sword in belt, was always a prime favorite. He told extraordinary tales about how he beat a whole army of Turks and carried off the beard of the Sultan, but when there was a hint of real danger he was the first to run away. He made love to the none-too-innocent servant maid, and got trashed by her Harlequin lover. This character, of course, is none other than the Miles Glorious of Plautus, called in Italy Il Capitano Spavento della Valle Inferno, or simply Spavento.

COLOMBINA (means "little dove" in Italian) is a comic servant character from the Commedia dell'Arte. Colombina was usually dressed in a ragged and patched dress appropriate to a hired servant. Occasionally, under the name Arlecchina she would wear motley similar to her counterpart Arlecchino. She was also known to wear heavy makeup around her eyes and carry a tambourine which she could use to fend off the amorous advances of Pantalone. She was often the only functional intellect on the stage. Colombina aided her mistress, the inamorata to gain the affections of her one true love by manipulating Arlecchino and counter-plotting against Pantalone while simultaneously managing the whereabouts of the inamorato.

ILL DOTTORE is a local aristocrat and/or doctor of medicine or law or anything else he claims to know about, which is most things. He traditionally is portrayed as having been educated in Bologna. He is often extremely rich, generally with "old" money, though the needs of the scenario might have things otherwise. He is extremely pompous, and loves the sound of his own voice, spouting ersatz Latin and Greek. His interaction in the play is usually mostly with Pantalone, either as a friend, mentor or competitor.
He is typically depicted as an elderly man who only knows nonsense. He makes many cruel jokes about the opposite sex and believes that he knows everything about everything. He is an obese man that enjoys the bottle and eating to excess. His mask is unique in that it is the only mask in Commedia dell'Arte to cover only the forehead and nose. It is sometimes black in color or else flesh-toned with a red nose.
His costume is usually all or mostly black, sometimes with a white collar. He frequently wears a hat, and long, trailing robes. If the actor playing the role is not naturally fat then he is padded out to make him seem so.

PANTALONE is a miserly, libidinous, aged character from the Commedia dell'Arte. Usually he is a shopkeeper from Vienna, somewhat stupid, fond of food and of pretty women, talkative, gullible, full of temper, and the butt of all the jokes, some of them very indecent, yet forgiving in the end.
He traditionally wears a large codpiece to advertise his virility, which everyone around him knows to be long gone.
He is often cast as the parent of one of the inamorata and has some business or personal relationship with Dottore or Capitano. Pantalone's plans to profit at the expense of his family and friends are guaranteed to be thwarted by his servant. He traditionally wears a large codpiece to advertise his virility (which everyone around him knows to be long gone) along with a mask with a long hooked nose, a tight red vest, red breeches and stockings, a black cassock, slippers and a brimless hat.

PIERROT (Pedrolino in his Italian incarnation) is a stock figure in the Commedia dell'Arte. Pierrot is normally portrayed as personable, charming and kind, to the point of excess he blames himself for wrongs never done and because of his good and trusting nature is often easily tricked. The noticeable feature of Pierrot's behavior is his naiveness, he is seen as a fool, always being cheated and joked on by the others. Despite his suspicions about things, Pierrot always ends up trusting people and believing in their lies. Pierrot is also called as a lunatic, an a person outside the reality, in a state of unawareness about what's happening around, someone for whom anything matters, just cheering and playing all the time.
Pierrot wears white clothes, which are occasionally overlarge for him but more commonly are well fitted, and sometimes black accessories. On his head he wears a hat that is either tall and pointed or else small and brimmed. Pierrot is very occasionally depicted with a teardrop on his face, and he usually wears no mask the actor is generally expected to have a great range of facial expression, and this tradition has been in play since at least the start of the 1600s. His face is sometimes whitened with powder or flour.

PULCINELLA is a classical character that originated in the Commedia dell'Arte of the 17th century, a hunchback who still chases women. Pulcinella was the model for Punch in the English variation Punch and Judy. Pulcinella became a stock character in Neapolitan puppetry. His main characteristic, from which he acquired his name, is his extremely long nose, which resembles a beak. In Latin, this was a pullus gallinaceus, which led to the word "Pulliciniello" and "Pulcinella", related to the Italian pulcino or chick. His traditional temperament is to be mean, vicious, and crafty: Pulcinella main mode of defense is to pretend to be too stupid to know what's going on, and his secondary mode is to physically beat people.
Pulcinella often wears a black mask and long white coat, and has loose and straggly hair.

ZANNI is the archetype of the comic servant characters of the Commedia dell'arte. Its name comes from Giovanni (also said Zan, Zane, Zuane), a typical name of servants whose forefathers emigrated in Venice search for work from the valleys around Bergamo. Opposed to the Magnifici (the masters), the role of the Zanni is very changeable: silly, simple-minded, and vulgar. Once inside the city environment Zanni becomes sly, cunning, meddling, and cheeky. Many times he remains poor, constantly hungry.
Zanni's costume was loosely fitting white smock and pants. He wore a black mask reminiscent of his more popular descendant, Arlecchino.

CARNIVAL MASKS

Venetian Mask is the object, which most represents Venice, because it plays the Venetian spirit projected towards the party, the transgression and the amusement. There were many occasions when people turned to dressing up, in fact masks were worn many months of the year. In the eighteenth century, Venice enjoyed the reputation of having the most famous Carnival in the world. All the social classes took part and the mask represented the trick for the expression of that big collective magic.

BAUTA is famous through the Carnival of Venice as it is the main type of mask worn during the Carnival. Bauta was used also on many other occasions as a device for hiding the wearer's identity and social status. It would permit the wearer to act more freely in cases where he or she wanted to interact with other members of the society outside the bounds of identity and everyday convention. It was thus useful for a variety of purposes, some of them illicit or criminal, others just personal, such as romantic encounters.
The name Bauta does not have up to now, a definite interpretation. It may came from the German "behten" (to protect), as well as from "bau"(or "babau"), typical Italian representation of the monster, or bad beast, used by adults to scare children. "Se non stai bravo viene il babau e ti porta via &hellip (if you do not behave, the babau will come and take you away &hellip)".
This very Venetian mask was considered an ideal disguise by kings and princes who could move freely into the city without being recognized but was worn by strangers too. Fame of the Bauta went on along the Serenissima Republic, with the French and Austrian rules it started to disappear, considered as a reactionary symbol.
Bauta is quite ghostlike and with the centuries the fashion was to wear it with a black tricorno (the 3-pointed typical Venetian hat), zendale (long hood made of satin and macrame), and long cape.

DAMA , which presents many elegant variations corresponds to the ladies of the Cinquecento (the period of Titian) who covered themselves in jewels, expensive clothing and elaborate coifs. In our days this is probably the most popular and most beautiful mask type used during the Venetian Carnival.

GATTO (means cat in Italian) is a traditional Venetian Carnival mask. Cats were so scarce in Venice that they became the subject of one of the most typical masks. Legend has it that a man who owned nothing but his old cat came to Venice from China. The cat rid the palace of all its mice and the man became rich. When he went back home, his rich neighbor was green with envy and rushed to Venice with his most precious silks, thinking that if a mere cat made the other man rich, he would be enormously rewarded for these precious items. Indeed, the Duke promised him his most precious possession in return for his gifts. and the neighbor went home with the cat!

JESTER , ili JOLLY as a female variant, is a specific type of clown mostly associated with the Middle Ages. Starting in Italy, Jester moved into all of Europe, influencing theatre in Spain, Holland, Germany, Austria, England, and especially, France.
The origins of the Jester are said to have been in prehistoric Western tribal society. Pliny the Elder mentions a royal Jester (planus regius) when recounting Apelles' visit to the palace of the Hellenistic King Ptolemy I. However, Jesters are mainly thought of in association with the European Middle Ages. Jester was symbolic twin of the king. All Jesters and fools in those days were thought of as special cases whom God had touched with a childlike madness&mdasha gift, or perhaps a curse. Mentally handicapped people sometimes found employment by capering and behaving in an amusing way. In the harsh world of medieval Europe, people who might not be able to survive any other way thus found a social niche.
Jesters typically wore brightly colored clothing in a motley pattern. Their hats were especially distinctive made of cloth, they were floppy with three points, each of which had a jingle bell at the end. The three points of the hat represent the asses' ears and tail worn by Jesters in earlier times. Other things distinctive about the jester were his incessant laughter and his mock scepter, known as a bauble or marotte.

MORETTA is traditional Venetian mask. This mask was worn by Venetian women all year around. Moretta is an oval mask of black velvet that was usually worn by women visiting convents. It was invented in France and rapidly became popular in Venice as it brought out the beauty of feminine features. The mask was finished off with a veil.

VOLTO (means face in Italian) also known as the Citizen mask, because it was worn by the common people during all Holidays since ancient time: S. Marco's day, Sensa feast day, S. Vito and Modesto, S. Stefano festivities are only a few examples.

DOTTORE PESTE is a modern Venetian Carnival mask. This mask has a very unique history. One of the worst scourges for the city of Venice was without any doubt the Plague, which struck the city on several occasions. Because of this the Plague Doctor isn't a real mask but was a disguise used by local plague doctors who went on visits wearing this strange costume to people afflicted with plague.
Dottore Peste outfit consisted of a hat to show that the man was a doctor, a mask to protect the face which included crystal eyes to protect the wearer's eyes and the beak which was stuffed with spices or herbs to purify the air that the doctor breathed, a wooden stick to push away victims who would get too close to him, a pair of leather gloves to protect the hands, a gown waxed from the exterior, and full length boots.


Pogledajte video: Birka The Soundtrack


Komentari:

  1. Zulkibar

    the Incomparable phrase, pleases me :)

  2. Mannix

    wonderfully, this message of value

  3. Nedal

    It doesn't quite come close to me.

  4. Kyros

    Potrebno je biti skromniji

  5. Meztikasa

    Sjajna ideja



Napišite poruku