John Bidwell

John Bidwell


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John Bidwell rođen je u okrugu Chautauqua 5. kolovoza 1819. Obrazovan u školama u okrugu Ashtabula u Ohaju, postao je učitelj u Westportu. Takođe je kupio malu farmu u tom području.

1840. Bidwell je otišao na odmor u St. Louis. Kada se vratio kući otkrio je da mu je lokalni skakač potraživanja ukrao farmu. Ugled čovjeka zbog nasilja bio je toliko loš da vlasti okruga Platte nisu bile voljne provoditi Bidwellova zemljišna prava. Razočaran ovim događajima, Bidwell je odlučio napustiti Missouri. Nakon što je pročitao knjigu Antoana Robidouxa, počeo je razmatrati mogućnost emigracije u Kaliforniju. Kako je Bidwell tada objasnio: "njegov opis zemlje učinio je da izgleda kao raj". Bidwella su također inspirirale priče o tome kako su ljudi poput Johna Suttera, Johna Marsha i Thomasa Olivera Larkina uspjeli živjeti u blizini ušća rijeke Sacramento.

Bidwell je sada osnovao Zapadno emigracijsko društvo i objavio vijest da namjerava odvesti veliki voz vagonom do Kalifornije. Ideja je bila vrlo popularna i uskoro je društvo dobilo imena 500 ljudi koji su željeli učestvovati u ovom značajnom događaju. Vlasnici trgovina u Missouriju, plašeći se brzog pada broja kupaca, odlučili su pokrenuti kampanju protiv te ideje. Lokalne novine objavile su priče o opasnostima putovanja kopnom do Kalifornije. Takođe, dat je veliki publicitet Putovanja u Velikim zapadnim prerijama, knjiga Thomasa Farnhama. U knjizi Farnham je detaljno opisao teškoće s kojima će se ljudi suočiti na putovanju.

Kao rezultat ove kampanje, samo se jedna mala grupa pojavila da napusti Sapling Grove 9. maja 1841. To je uključivalo Josiaha Beldena i Charlesa Webera. Ovo je trebao biti prvi vagonski voz koji je vozio ljude iz rijeke Missouri u Kaliforniju. Ekspedicija Bidwell uključivala je samo pet žena. Bidwell je kasnije priznao da na zabavi nije bilo nikoga tko je ikada bio u Kaliforniji: "Naše nepoznavanje rute bilo je potpuno. Znali smo da Kalifornija leži na zapadu, i to je bio opseg našeg znanja." Stoga, kada je Bidwell čuo da je grupa misionara, predvođena Pierre-Jean De Smet-om, i vođena iskusnim Tomom Fitzpatrickom, također namjeravala otputovati u Fort Hall, odlučeno je pričekati dok ne stignu u Sapling Grove. Fitzpatrick je pristao odvesti Bidwellovu zabavu u Fort Hall. Bidwell je kasnije tvrdio da je to bio najvažniji faktor u opstanku stranke: "bilo je dobro (sačekajte Fitzpatricka), jer na drugi način vjerovatno niko od nas nikada ne bi stigao u Kaliforniju, zbog našeg neiskustva".

Kombinirana stranka napustila je Sapling Grove 12. svibnja 1841. Kao što je Frank McLynn istaknuo: "Četiri kola misionara činila su avangardu, a svaka su ih vukle dvije mazge povezane u tandemu. Glavnu zabavu činilo je osam vagona koje su vukle mazge ili konji . Straga su se vozila koja su se najsporije kretala - šest vagona koje su vukli volovi. " Pratili su stazu Sante Fe dva dana prije nego što su se odvojili na slab put koji su stvorili trgovci krznom koji su već bili na putu do tvrđave Laramie.

Dana 16. maja 1841. godine De Smet je u svom dnevniku napisao: "Nadam se da će se putovanje dobro završiti; loše je počelo. Jedan od naših vagona je spaljen na parobrodici; konj je pobjegao i nikada nije pronađen; drugi je pao bolestan, što sam bio dužan zamijeniti za drugog sa gubitkom. Neki od mazgi su se uplašili i pobjegli ostavljajući svoje vagone; drugi su, sa vagonima, zastali u blatu. Suočili smo se sa opasnim situacijama pri prelasku strmih padina, duboke gudure, močvare i rijeke. "

Putovanje je postalo još teže nakon prelaska rijeke Kansas. Duga trava prošarana drvećem rezultirala je time da je većina porodica napustila teški namještaj koji su pokušavali prevesti u svojim vagonima. Otac Nicolas Point napisao je da je "teren između Westporta i Platte jedan od onih beskrajnih valovitosti koje savršeno podsjećaju na more kada je uzburkana olujom." Point je također zabilježio da je u jednom danu stranka bičevima ubila desetak čegrtuša ne napuštajući trag.

Dana 4. juna, jedan od učesnika, Nicholas Dawson, izašao je sam u lov i uhvatila ga je grupa hrabrih Cheyennea. Skinuli su mu odjeću i ukrali mulu, pušku i pištolj. Dawson je tada pušten i potjeran natrag do voza. Tom Fitzpatrick izašao je u susret Cheyenneu i nakon što su pregovarali o povratku mazge i puške, zajedno su popušili lulu mira.

Devet dana kasnije vagon je doživio prvu smrt. Kao što je John Bidwell objasnio: "Mladić po imenu Shotwell, dok je izvodio pištolj iz vagona, povukao je njušku prema sebi na takav način da je pukla i pucala mu u srce. živio oko sat vremena i umro u potpunosti posjedujući svoja čula. "

Putnici su 22. juna stigli do tvrđave Laramie u Wyomingu. Metodistički propovjednik, Joseph Williams, bio je šokiran kada je vidio da planinari imaju "žene" američkih domorodaca. On je također zabilježio da ne odobrava Fitzpatrickov stav prema religiji: "Naš vođa, Fitzpatrick, zao je svjetski čovjek i mnogo se protivi tome da misionari idu među Indijance. On ima izvjesnu inteligenciju, ali je u svojim načelima deističan."

Vagon je napustio tvrđavu dva dana kasnije. Putovali su duž južne obale rijeke North Platte dok nisu stigli do strašnog prijelaza North Fork. Bilo je preduboko za fordiranje pa su imali velikih poteškoća doći do druge strane. Međutim, pioniri su to uspjeli izgubivši samo jednu utopljenu mazgu.

U julu su putnici imali poteškoća u pronalaženju dovoljno bivola za ubijanje. Teški teren je značio da se vagon vozio sporijim tempom. Putovanje od Fort Laramieja do Soda Springsa u Idahu trajalo je četrdeset osam dana da se prevali 560 milja, u prosjeku dvanaest milja dnevno. Na Soda Springsu je bila kratka stanka za lov.

11. avgusta dvije grupe su krenule svojim putem. Pierre-Jean De Smet i Tom Fitzpatrick krenuli su prema sjeveru do Fort Halla, dok je zabava Johna Bidwella nastavila put prema Kaliforniji. Samo je trideset i tri ljudi izabralo da idu s Bidwellom. Fitzpatrick je pokušao uvjeriti Bidwella da odustane od putovanja u Kaliforniju i umjesto toga nastavi u Oregon. Smet je kasnije zapisao: "Počeli su čisto s namjerom da traže sreću u Kaliforniji ... i nastavili su sa svojim poduhvatom s postojanošću koja je karakteristična za Amerikance."

Bidwell je poslao četiri čovjeka u Fort Hall da traže savjet kako doći do Kalifornije. Frank McLynn, autor knjige Wagons West: Epska priča o američkim kopnenim stazama (2002) je istaknuo: "Najbolja inteligencija dostupna iz Fort Halla bila je ta da bi emigranti vezani za Kaliforniju trebali otići sjeverno od Slanog jezera prije nego što će zamahnuti prema zapadu, ali ne bi trebali ići previše na sjever iz straha da ne nalete na labirint neravnina kanjoni, provalije i provalije; s druge strane, ako bi otišli predaleko prema jugu, vjerojatno bi završili umiranjem od žeđi u pustinji bez tragova. "

Vagon je imao poteškoća u pronalaženju vode za piće. Voda koju su pronašli u području Velikog slanog jezera bila je bočata i imala je loš miris sumpora. Jedini način na koji je tekućina bila pitka bio je kad se skuhala u jaku kavu. Čak bi ga i konji pili samo na ovaj način. Hrana je također predstavljala problem i 5. septembra odlučili su ubiti vola i napustiti kola koja je vukao.

Sljedeća faza njihovog putovanja uključivala je prelazak pustinje Nevade. Nakon dva dana stigli su do vrela Rabbit Hole. Prateći staze koje su stvorili Indijanci, na kraju su stigli do Mountain Springa blizu Pilot Peaka. Tu su napuštena još dva vagona, a volovi koji su vukli teret ubijeni su i pojedeni. U naredna tri dana, šest preostalih vagona kretalo se prema jugu, preko prijevoja Silver Zone i doline Goshute.

Dana 15. septembra donesena je odluka o napuštanju vagona u podnožju planina Pequop. Kao što je Frank McLynn istakao: "Obrazloženje je bilo jasno: mogli su se brže snaći, mogli lakše pregovarati o neravnim i brdovitim područjima i da li bi imali meso na papcima u obliku volova, što je sada višak za potrebe povlačenja. Naravno , više neće moći tvrditi da su oni bili prvi vagon koji je stigao u Kaliforniju, ali do sada je problem bio opstanak. Oprema i zalihe su istovareni i pakirani na leđima mazgi i volova. Neiskorišteni za terete, volovi postaju nespretan i skinuo pakete. " Jedna od stranaka napisala je sljedeće: "Bidwellu i Kelseyu najviše su nedostajali vagoni, jer su njihov tim bili volovi, a vola nije lako spakirati niti ostati pakovan."

Nakon što su 21. septembra prošli pored toplih izvora u podnožju planina Ruby, došli su do Marijine rijeke (kasnije preimenovane u rijeku Humboldt). Jedan putnik nazvao ga je "najopasnijim, najblažim, najprljavijim potokom koji se može zamisliti". Pratili su njeno južno račvanje prema sjeveru do sudopera Humboldt, močvarno područje, gdje je rijeka nestala u pustinji. Uspjeli su ubiti samo neobičnu antilopu ili zeca. Sada im je toliko nedostajalo hrane da su počeli ubijati tovarne životinje. Upoznali su zabavu Shoshone koja im je dala hranu koja ih je podsjetila na toffee jabuke. Međutim, pioniri su izgubili apetit za ovu hranu kada su otkrili da se radi o mješavini meda i zdrobljenih skakavaca, cvrčaka i skakavaca.

18. oktobra Bidwell zabava stigla je do rijeke Walker u istočnom podnožju planina Sierra Nevada. U sljedećih nekoliko dana izgubili su četiri životinje dok su prelazili planine. 22. oktobra pioniri su ubili posljednje svoje volove. Jedan od članova stranke, Josiah Belden, tvrdio je da posljednjih dvadeset dana nije živio samo od žira. Na kraju su stigli do vrha blizu prevoja Sonora i bili su blizu gladi kada su pronašli rijeku Stanislaus u Kaliforniji. Do kraja mjeseca stigli su u dolinu San Joaquin. Pripadnik plemena Miwok rekao im je da je Marsh's Fort u blizini.

Od 69 ljudi u Bidwellovoj stranci koji su krenuli iz Sapling Grovea, samo 33 ljudi stiglo je u Marsh's Fort 4. novembra. Međutim, stranka je postala prvi emigrant koji je putovao kopnom od Missourija do pacifičke obale. Cheyenne Dawson je napisala: "Očekivali smo da ćemo pronaći civilizaciju, s velikim poljima, lijepim kućama, crkvama, školama itd. Umjesto toga, pronašli smo kuće koje liče na neizgorjele peći od opeke, bez podova, bez dimnjaka i s otvorima za vrata i prozore zatvorene kapcima umjesto staklom. "

Prema Franku McLynnu, autoru knjige Wagons West: Epska priča o američkim kopnenim stazama (2002.) četvorica stranke, Bidwell, Josiah Belden, Charles Weber i Robert Thomas, svi su na kraju postali milioneri. "Robert Thomas postao je vlasnik ogromnog ranča Tehama u okrugu Tehama. Charles Weber obogatio se i osnovao grad Stockton, a Josiah Belden, prvi gradonačelnik San Josea, bio je još jedan koji je postao izuzetno bogat."

John Marsh, vlasnik Marsh's Forta, opskrbio ih je svinjskim i goveđim tortiljama. Kad im je svako jutro svako jutro dao račun za pet dolara, odlučili su da si ne mogu priuštiti još jednu noć Marsh -ovog gostoprimstva i napustili su utvrdu u potrazi za poslom. Bidwell je procijenio da je u Kaliforniji 1841. bilo samo stotinjak bijelaca iz Sjedinjenih Država.

Ubrzo po dolasku u Kaliforniju, Bidwell je upoznao Johna Suttera: "Sutter nas je primio raširenih ruku i na kneževski način, jer je bio čovjek s najpristojnijom adresom i najljubaznijim manirima, čovjek koji je mogao zasjati u svakom društvu. Štaviše, naš dolazak za njega nije bio neočekivan. Zapamtit će se da se u Sierra Nevadi jedan od naših ljudi po imenu Jimmy John odvojio od glavne zabave. Čini se da je ušao u Kaliforniju i, razilazeći se na sjever, pronašao svoj put do Sutterovog naselja ... Sutter je preko tog čovjeka čuo da je naša kompanija od tridesetak ljudi već negdje u Kaliforniji. Odmah je nakrcao dvije mazge namirnicama izvađenim iz njegovih privatnih trgovina i poslao dva čovjeka sa nama u potragu za nama. "

Bidwell je otišao raditi za Suttera: "Prvo zaposlenje koje sam imao u Kaliforniji bilo je u Sutterovoj službi, otprilike dva mjeseca nakon našeg dolaska u Marsh. On me angažirao da odem u Bodegu i Fort Ross i ostanem tamo dok ne završi uklanjanje imovine koji sam kupio od Rusa. Ostao sam tamo četrnaest mjeseci, dok se sve nije uklonilo; oni sam došao u dolinu Sacramento i preuzeo odgovornost za Sutter njegove farme Hock (nazvanu tako po velikom indijanskom selu na tom mjestu), preostalo tamo nešto više od godinu dana. "

Bidwell je otkrio zlato na obalama rijeke Feather tokom kalifornijske zlatne groznice 1848. Sljedeće godine kupio je Rancho Chico od 22.000 jutara sjeverno od Sacramenta. To je bio veliki uspjeh i Bidwell je postao najpoznatiji poljoprivrednik u Kaliforniji.

Bidwell se počeo baviti politikom i služio je u senatu Kalifornije. U početku je bio član Demokratske stranke, bio je član Kongresa Republikanske stranke od 1865. do 1867. Oženio se 16. aprila 1868. sa duboko religioznom, Annie Kennedy. Annie je podržavala pravo glasa i zabranu žena. Nakon vjenčanja živjeli su u vili Bidwell u Chicu. Dom je bio baza za njihove političke aktivnosti, a gosti su bili Susan B. Anthony, Frances Willard, Ulysses S. Grant, Andrew Johnson, Rutherford B. Hayes i William T. Sherman.

Bidwell se pridružio Anti-monopolskoj stranci i 1875. Bidwell se kandidirao za guvernera Kalifornije. Bio je potpuno predan pokretu umjerenosti i 1892. je bio predsjednički kandidat Stranke zabrane. Kandidat demokrata, Grover Cleveland, pobijedio je na izborima sa 5.556.918 glasova, dok je Bidwell mogao upravljati samo sa 264.133.

Zagovornik transkontinentalne željeznice i pobornik prava Indijanaca, Bidwell je objavio svoju autobiografiju, Odjeci prošlosti, neposredno prije njegove smrti, 4. aprila 1900.

On (Pierre-Jean De Smet) bio je genijalan, izuzetne prisutnosti i jedan od najsvetijih ljudi koje sam ikada poznavao, i ne mogu se čuditi da su Indijanci bili uvjereni da je on božanski zaštićen. Bio je to čovjek velike ljubaznosti i ljubaznosti u svim okolnostima; činilo se da ništa ne ometa njegov temperament ... Ponekad bi prešla kolica razbivši sve u njoj na komade; i u takvim bi trenucima otac de Smet bio isti - blistao od dobrog humora.

Zabava čije sam bogatstvo pratio preko ravnice nije samo prva koja je s istoka išla direktno u Kaliforniju; mi smo vjerovatno bili prvi bijelci, osim Bonnevilleove zabave 1833. godine, koji su ikada prešli Sierra Nevadu. Ranč dr. Marsha, prvo naselje koje smo dosegli u Kaliforniji, nalazilo se u istočnim podnožjima planina Coast Range, blizu sjeverozapadnog kraja velike doline San Joaquin i oko šest milja istočno od Monte Diabla, koje se može nazvati geografsko središte županije Contra Costa. U dolini nije bilo drugih naselja; očito je bilo još jednako novo kao kad je Kolumbo otkrio Ameriku, a po njoj su lutali bezbroj hiljada divljih konja, losova i antilopa. Bila je to jedna od najsušnijih godina ikada poznatih u Kaliforniji. Zemlja je bila smeđa i isušena; u celoj državi pšenica, pasulj, sve je propalo. Goveda su gotovo gladovala za travom, a ljudi, osim možda nekoliko najboljih porodica, bili su bez kruha i jeli su uglavnom meso, i to često vrlo loše kvalitete.

Doktor Marsh je došao u Kaliforniju prije četiri ili pet godina putem Novog Meksika. Bio je u nekim pogledima izuzetan čovek. Jedva da sam mu poznavao engleski jezik. Vjerujem da nikada nije studirao medicinu, ali je odlično čitao: ponekad bi po čitav dan ležao u krevetu čitajući, a imao je sjećanje koje je stereotipiralo sve što je pročitao, a tih je dana u Kaliforniji takav čovjek lako mogao preuzeti ulogu ljekara i ljekarske prakse. U stvari, s izuzetkom dr. Marsha, tada nije bilo liječnika bilo koje vrste u Kaliforniji. Bili smo presretni što smo pronašli Amerikanca, a ipak kada smo se upoznali s njim našli smo ga jednim od najsebičnijih smrtnika. U noći našeg dolaska ubio je dvije svinje za nas. Osećali smo se veoma zahvalni; jer se nikako nismo oporavili od gladovanja na siromašnom mesu mazgi, a kad je on nagovorio svog indijskog kuhara da nam pravi tortilje (male kolače), dajući svakome po jedno, u našoj zabavi bilo ih je trideset dvoje, osjećali smo se još zahvalniji ; a posebno kad smo saznali da je morao upotrijebiti dio svoje sjemenske pšenice, jer nije imao drugu. Čuvši da u zemlji ne postoji ništa drugo osim novca i da su mesarski noževi, pištolji, municija i sve te vrste bolji od novca, prvu noć doktoru smo izrazili zahvalnost poklonima - jedan je dao limenka praha, još jedna olovka ili mesarski nož, a druga jeftin, ali servisan set kirurških instrumenata. Sljedećeg jutra ustao sam rano, među prvima, kako bih od našeg domaćina naučio nešto o Kaliforniji, šta bismo mogli učiniti i kamo bismo mogli otići, i, koliko god to izgledalo čudno, jedva bi odgovorio na pitanje. Činilo se da je loše raspoložen, a između ostalog je rekao: "Kompanija je za mene imala trošak od preko stotinu dolara i Bog zna hoću li to ikada ostvariti ili ne." Nisam bio u stanju to da objasnim, pa sam izašao i ispričao nekome iz stranke, i otkrio da su i drugi oboreni na sličan način. Održali smo konsultacije i odlučili otići što je prije moguće. Polovica naše družine zaključila je da se vrati na rijeku San Joaquin, gdje je bilo mnogo divljači, i provede zimu u lovu, uglavnom na vidre, s kožom od tri dolara po komadu. Ostatak - njih četrnaest - uspjelo je pribaviti podatke od dr. Marsha pomoću kojih su počeli pronalaziti grad San José, udaljen četrdesetak milja južno, tada poznat pod imenom Pueblo de San José, sada grad San José . Manje -više naših efekata morali smo ostaviti kod Marsha, a ja sam odlučio ostati i paziti na njih, a u međuvremenu sam na svoje kratke izlete po zemlji. Nakon što su drugi otišli, krenuo sam na jug i došao u ono što se danas zove Livermore Valley, tada poznato kao Livermore’s Ranch, koje pripada Robertu Livermoreu, rođenom u Engleskoj. Napustio je plovilo još kao dječak, oženio se i živio kao domaći Kalifornijci i, poput njih, bio je vrlo stručan za lasso. Livermore's je bio pogranični ranč i bio je izložen više od bilo čega drugom zvjerstvu Indijanaca lopova konja u Sierra Nevadi (prije je spomenuto). Ta je dolina bila puna divlje stoke, na tisuće njih, i oni su bili opasniji za jednog pješice, kao i ja, od medvjeda grizlija. Izbjegavajući u provaliju i iza drveća, uputio sam se do meksičkog ranča na krajnjem zapadnom kraju doline, gdje sam ostao cijelu noć. Ovo je bio jedan od zapaženih rančeva i pripadao je kalifornijskom Don Joséu Mariji Amador - u novije vrijeme, čovjeku po imenu Dougherty. Sljedećeg dana, vidjevši ništa što bi me ohrabrilo, počeo sam se vraćati na Marshin ranč.

Usput, kad sam došao do mjesta gdje su se spajale dvije ceste, bolje rečeno staze, upao sam s jednim od četrnaest ljudi, M. C. Nyeom, koji je krenuo za San José. Izgledao je prilično uznemireno i izvijestio je da je u misiji San José, nekih petnaest milja s ove strane grada San José, sve muškarce uhapsio i zatvorio general Vallejo, vrhovni zapovjednik Meksika pod guvernerom Alvaradom, on je jedini poslan nazad da kaže Marsha i da mu se odmah javi da objasni zašto su ove oružane snage napale zemlju. Stigli smo do Marsha nakon mraka. Sutradan je doktor krenuo u misiju San José, udaljenu skoro trideset milja, sa spiskom kompanije koji sam mu dao. Nije ga bilo tri dana. U međuvremenu smo poslali poruku ljudima na rijeci San Joaquin da ih obavijeste šta se dogodilo, i odmah su se vratili na ranč da čekaju rezultate. Kad se Marsh vratio, rekao je zlokobno: "Sada, ljudi, želim da svi uđete u kuću i reći ću vam svoju sudbinu." Svi smo ušli unutra, a on je najavio: "Vi ljudi koji imate pet dolara možete imati pasoše i ostati u zemlji i ići gdje hoćete." Činjenica je da je jednostavno dobio pasoše za traženje; ništa ga nisu koštali. Muškarci koji su uhapšeni u Misiji bili su oslobođeni čim su im izdati pasoši i odmah su krenuli na put za San José. Ali pet dolara! Pretpostavljam da niko nije imao pet dolara; njih devet desetina vjerovatno nisu imale ni centa novca. Pozivali su se imena i svaki čovjek se namirivao, dajući iznos u nečemu, a ako nije u mogućnosti nadoknaditi novac ili efekte, dao bi svoju bilješku za ostalo. Zvala su se sva imena osim mog. Za mene nije bilo pasoša. Marsh me zasigurno nije zaboravio, jer sam mu i sama dostavila spisak naših imena. Vjerojatno je njegova ideja bila - kako su drugi pretpostavili, a potom su mi rekli - da ću, bez pasoša, ostati na njegovom ranču i pružiti korisnu ruku za rad.

Sutradan ujutro prije dana zatekao sam se kako odlazim u misiju San José kako bih sebi nabavio pasoš. Sa mnom je otišao i Mike Nye, čovjek koji je donio vijest o hapšenju. Prijatelj mi je pozajmio siromašnog starog konja, sposobnog da nosi samo moje ćebence. Stigao sam u jaku kišu, ušao sam u kalaboos i tamo ostao tri dana bez hrane, a buhe su bile toliko brojne da su prekrile i zamračile sve svijetlih boja. U zatvoru je bilo četiri ili pet Indijanaca. Peglani su i nastavljali su zvoniti, pretpostavljam, kao kaznu, jer se pričalo da su ukrali konje; moguće da su pripadali plemenima lopova konja istočno od doline San Joaquin. Straža je bila smještena na vratima. Kroz rešetkasti prozor napravio sam pokret indijanskom dječaku vani i on mi je donio šaku graha i šaku manteke koju Meksikanci koriste umjesto masti. Činilo se kao da će me izgladnjeti do smrti. Nakon što sam bio tamo tri dana, kroz vrata sam ugledao čovjeka kojeg sam, po svojoj svijetloj kosi, smatrao Amerikancem, iako je bio odjeven u divlju slikovitu odjeću domorodačkog Kalifornijca, uključujući serape i ogromne ostruge koje koriste vaquero. Pozvao sam stražara na vratima da ga pozdravi. Pokazao se kao Amerikanac, stanovnik Puebla San Joséa, po imenu Thomas Bowen, i ljubazno je otišao u Vallejo, koji se nalazio preko puta u velikoj zgradi Misije, i nabavio mi pasoš. Mislim da sada imam taj pasoš, koji je potpisao Vallejo i napisao na španskom Victor Prudon, sekretar Valleja. Svi u Misiji su Marševo djelo proglasili nečuvenim; tako nešto se ranije nije znalo. Već smo čuli da je čovjek po imenu Sutter započeo koloniju stotinu kilometara dalje sjeverno u dolini Sacramento. Nijedno civilizirano naselje nije pokušano bilo gdje istočno od Obalnog lanca prije Sutterovog dolaska, Indijanci su vladali. Kao najbolja stvar koju sam trebao učiniti, odlučio sam otići u Sutter's, kasnije nazvan "Sutter's Fort" ili New Helvetia. Marsh je rekao da možemo putovati za dva dana, ali trebalo nam je osam. Zima je ozbiljno došla, a zima u Kaliforniji tada, kao i sada, značila je kišu. Imao sam tri pratioca. Bilo je mokro kad smo počinjali, a većinu vremena smo putovali kroz kišu. Potoci su izašli iz svojih banaka; jate su plivale; ravnice su poplavljene; zaista, veći dio zemlje je bio preplavljen. Nije bilo puteva, samo staza kojima su kročili samo Indijanci i divljač. Bili smo prisiljeni slijediti putove, čak i kad su bili pod vodom, u trenutku kad su naše životinje zakoračile na jednu stranu prema dolje, ušle su u blato. Veći dio puta bio je kroz regiju koja se sada nalazi između Lathropa i Sacramenta. Ostali smo bez hrane i bili smo oko tri dana bez hrane. Igra je bila u izobilju. ali teško snimati po kiši. Osim toga, nemoguće je bilo držati naše stare pištolje sa kremenom bravom suhe, a posebno prah u posudama. Osmog dana došli smo u Sutterovo naselje; tvrđava tada nije bila započeta. Sutter nas je primio raširenih ruku i na kneževski način, jer je to bio čovjek s najpristojnijom adresom i najljubaznijim manirima, čovjek koji je mogao zasjati u svakom društvu. Čini se da je ušao u Kaliforniju i, krećući se prema sjeveru, našao svoj put do Sutterovog naselja možda malo prije nego što smo stigli do Dr. Marsha. Odmah je nakrcao dvije mazge namirnicama izvađenim iz njegovih privatnih trgovina i poslao dva čovjeka sa njima u potragu za nama. Ali nas nisu pronašli i vratili su se sa namirnicama u Sutter's. Kasnije, nakon duge potrage, ista dvojica, nakon što ih je Sutter ponovno poslao, udarili su našim tragom i slijedili ga do Marsha.

John A. Sutter rođen je u Badenu 1803. godine od švicarskih roditelja i bio je ponosan na svoju vezu s jedinom posljedicom u Evropi. Bio je srdačan obožavatelj Sjedinjenih Država, a neki od njegovih prijatelja su ga nagovorili da dođe preko Atlantika. Prvo je otišao do prijatelja u Indiani s kojim je boravio neko vrijeme, pomažući u raščišćavanju zemlje, ali to nije bio posao na koji nije navikao. Tako je otišao na put do St. Louis -a i uložio sredstva koja je imao u robu, te je otišao kao novi meksički trgovac u Santa Fe. Pošto nije uspio u Santa Feu, vratio se u St. Louis, pridružio se grupi lovaca, otišao do Stjenovitih planina i pronašao put niz rijeku Columbia do Fort Vancouvera. Tamo je stvorio planove za pokušaj silaska do obale Kalifornije kako bi osnovao koloniju. Uzeo je plovilo koje je otišlo na Sandvičanska ostrva i tamo saopštilo svoje planove ljudima koji su mu pomagali. No, kako nije bilo plovila koje je išlo direktno sa Sandvičanskih otoka u Kaliforniju, morao je uzeti ruski brod preko Sitke. Dobio je zasluge i pomoć koliko je mogao na Sandvičanskim ostrvima i - naveo je pet ili šest domorodaca da ga prate kako bi započeo zamišljenu koloniju. Očekivao je da će po svoje koloniste poslati u Evropu i Sjedinjene Države. Kad je 1840. došao na obalu Kalifornije, imao je intervju s guvernerom Alvaradom i dobio dozvolu da istraži zemlju i pronađe mjesto za svoju koloniju. Došao je u zaljev San Francisco, nabavio mali čamac i istražio najveću rijeku koju je mogao pronaći te odabrao mjesto na kojem se sada nalazi grad Sacramento.

Moje prvo zaposlenje u Kaliforniji bilo je u Sutterovoj službi, otprilike dva mjeseca nakon našeg dolaska u Marsh's. Ostao sam tamo četrnaest mjeseci, dok sve nije uklonjeno; Došli smo u dolinu Sacramento i preuzeli odgovornost za Sutter njegove farme Hock (nazvanu tako po velikom indijanskom selu na tom mjestu), ostajući tamo nešto više od godinu dana - 1843. i dio 1844. godine.

Gotovo svi koji su došli u Kaliforniju uspjeli su doći do utvrde Sutter. Sutter je bio jedan od najliberalnijih i najljubaznijih ljudi. Svi su bili dobrodošli - jedan čovjek ili stotinu, sve je bilo isto. Imao je neobične osobine; njegove potrepštine primorale su ga da uzme sve što je mogao kupiti, a on je platio sve što je mogao platiti; ali nije uspio pratiti svoje uplate. I tako se uskoro našao neizmjerno - gotovo beznadno - uključen u dugove. Njegov dug prema Rusima isprva je iznosio nešto blizu sto hiljada dolara. Kamata se brzo povećala. Pristao je platiti pšenicu, ali usjevi su mu propali. Borio se na sve načine, zasijavajući velike površine pšenicom, povećavajući stoku i konje i pokušavajući izgraditi mlin za cvjetanje. On je nastavio lansiranje trčeći do i iz zaliva, noseći kože, loj, krzno, pšenicu itd., Vraćajući se sa ručno isječenim drvetom u šumarke sekvoje u blizini zaljeva i druge potrepštine. Za putovanje je u prosjeku bilo potrebno mjesec dana. Cijena svake osobe bila je pet dolara, uključujući hranu. Sutter je pokrenuo mnoga druga preduzeća kako bi pronašao olakšanje od svojih neugodnosti; ali, unatoč svemu što je mogao učiniti, to se povećalo. Svake godine ga je sve gore i gore nalazilo; ali djelomično je to bila njegova vlastita krivnja. Zapošljavao je muškarce - ne zato što ih je uvijek trebao i mogao profitabilno zaposliti, već zato što mu je ljubaznost srca jednostavno postala navika zapošljavati sve koji žele zaposlenje. Sve dok je imao bilo šta, vjerovao je bilo kome u sve što je htio - odgovorno ili na neki drugi način, poznanike i strance. Većinu posla obavljali su Indijanci, uglavnom divlji, osim nekoliko iz Misija koji su govorili španski. Divlji su naučili španski onoliko koliko su naučili bilo šta, to je jezik zemlje, i svi su morali naučiti nešto od toga. Broj muškaraca zaposlenih kod Suttera može se navesti od 100 do 500 - potonji broj u vrijeme žetve. Među njima su bili kovači, stolari, kožari, oružari, vaquerosi, poljoprivrednici, vrtlari, tkalje (da bi se tkale vunene ćebe), lovci, pilane (za ručno piljenje drvne građe, običaj poznat u Engleskoj), ovčari, traperi i , kasnije, mlinovi i destilerija. Jednom riječju, Sutter je pokrenuo svaki mogući posao. Pokušao je zadržati neku vrstu vojne discipline. Topovi su montirani i usmjereni u svim smjerovima kroz uloške u zidovima i bastionima. Vojnici su bili Indijanci i svake večeri po dolasku s posla bili su izbušeni pod bijelim oficirom, općenito Nijemcem, koji je marširao uz muziku svirke i bubnja. Stražar je uvijek bio na kapiji, a redovna zvona pozivala su ljude na posao i s posla.


John Bidwell - Historija


Pet pogleda: Anketa o etničkim historijskim lokacijama za Kaliforniju

Mechoopda Indian Rancheria
Butte County

Mechoopda Indian Rancheria, koju danas predstavlja Wilsonov dom koji se nalazi na 620 Sacramento Avenue u Chico u Kaliforniji, jedna je od posljednjih preostalih zgrada povijesne rancherije koja se nalazila na ranču generala Johna Bidwella. Kuća je jednokatnica sa drvenim okvirom, s južnim ulazom i natkrivenim trijemom. Kuća može biti jedna od originalnih drvenih konstrukcija koje su izgradili Indijanci koji su živjeli na ranču Bidwell 1870-ih, ili može biti jedna od tri vrste kuća koje je za ranč projektirala arhitektica po narudžbi gospođe Annie Bidwell 1910. Wilsonov dom je sada privatna rezidencija i pripada potomcima porodice. Kvart koji se neposredno nalazi oko lokacije koristi se pretežno za iznajmljivanje studentima koji pohađaju California State University, Chico, nedaleko.

Prije europskog kontakta, dokazi ukazuju da je Indijancima bila dostupna velika raznolikost i opskrba hranom i materijalnim resursima iz nekoliko ekoloških zona te da je postojalo nekoliko stotina seoskih mjesta između rijeka Sacramento i Feather u području Chico. (Hill, 1978:7) Jedediah Smith, the first American trapper to record his visit, entered the region in 1828. Brigades of Hudson Bay Company trappers came shortly thereafter. In 1841, a United States Exploratory Expedition reported that the game around the Feather River had decreased substantially because of the large numbers of animals taken by Bay Company trappers. (Hill, 1978:9) Depletion of food resources seriously affected the Indians living in the region, and tension increased between them and the newly arrived Whites. By 1849, General John Bidwell had established a ranch near Chico Creek. Most of his work force was made up of Mechoopda Indians. More Mechoopdas came to the Bidwell Ranch after the death of rancher John Potter. The leader of Potter's Mechoopda ranch workers asked Bidwell to take them on to his ranch in order that they might continue working. Bidwell agreed to their request and relocated this group of Mechoopdas to the areas between Main and Orient streets and First and Fourth streets in Chico.

Tension between Indians and Whites continued to mount. In 1850, the government authorized treaties with the California Indians whereby the latter would be guaranteed reservations and some economic aid. A treaty of "peace and friendship" was signed on September 18, 1853 with the Mechoopda, Eskuin, Hololupi, Toto, Sunus, Cheno, Batsi, Yutduc, and Simsawa tribes at Bidwell's Ranch Indians at Reading's Ranch at Colusa and tribes along the Consumnes and Yuba rivers. United States Indian Agent O. M. Wozencraft represented the U.S. Government at Bidwell's Ranch. (Hill, 1978:20) In the 60 years following the treaties of 1851, the heavy influx of miners and ranchers caused massive faunal change to the land, equaled only by extinctions of the post-glacial period. Some species, such as condor, elk, antelope, and grizzly bear, disappeared entirely from the Chico region. (Hill, 1978:19)

More than 800 Maidu Indians in Butte County are said to have died from influenza, pneumonia, and tuberculosis by 1853. There are also indications that Indians died from cholera, smallpox, and typhoid. (Hill, 1978:23) In 1863, after much conflict between Indians and Whites, the U.S. government relocated the majority of the Indians in the Chico area to the Round Valley Reservation at Covelo in Mendocino County however, 300 Indians moved to the Chico Rancheria for protection. They and their descendants remained and worked there for the next 70 years.

In March 1869, the Mechoopda village was relocated to Sacramento Avenue, approximately one mile from Bidwell's residence. It remained there until 1964. Prior to relocation, rancheria houses were traditional, dome-shaped, earthen beehive structures. After the move to Sacramento Avenue, the Indians replaced their traditional homes with wooden structures although three families continued to live in earthen domes. The Indians also built a new dance house 40 feet in diameter, but they burned it down upon the death of the last Mechoopda headman. In the early 1900s, the Mechoopda Indian Rancheria census recorded several Northern California Indian tribes, including the Maidu Mechoopda, the Maidu Konkau, the Maidu Oroville, the Wintun, and the Yana residing at the Rancheria, but Maidu Mechoopda constituted the majority of the population. (Hill, 1978:84)

In 1900 when John Bidwell died, he left provisions and a plot plan in his will for the Indians living on the rancheria. The plot plan assigned 19 lots to certain resident families and individuals. Prior to John Bidwell's demise, Annie Bidwell asked Amanda Wilson, Santa Wilson's wife, to record various aspects of Mechoopda tradition. Amanda Wilson recorded information pertaining to the sweathouse and its use and to the boys' training for the dance society of which her first husband was leader. This information is now among Annie Bidwell's memoirs at the Bancroft Library. Before Annie Bidwell died, she confirmed her husband's land distribution to the Indians by issuing certificates of title for lots on the rancheria to individual Indians. The only certificate saved was that of title "No. 17," issued to Mr. and Mrs. Santa Wilson. Santa and Amanda received Lot 25 from Annie Bidwell for a consideration of $1. (Hill, 1978:83) She also deeded 14 acres of land to the Board of Home Missions of the Presbyterian Church to be held in trust for the Indians. The board could not pay the taxes on the land, however, so in 1939, on request from the mission, the Bureau of Indian Affairs paid the back taxes and began administering the land. In 1961, the BIA sold the land to California State University, Chico for $85,000. The BIA distributed the proceeds of the transaction to 45 Mechoopda Indians. In 1964, the tribe received another 12-acre tract of land adjacent to the city of Chico. Today, the Wilson Home is the only remaining evidence of the original Mechoopda Indian Rancheria, which the U.S. government terminated in 1964.


Mechoopda Indian Rancheria


John Bidwell - History

Compiled By Joan J. Bidwell
Volume 1

Baltimore, Maryland
Gateway Press
1983
pp. 1-2

On the twentieth of March 1630, a group of men and women, one hundred and forty in number, set sail from Plymouth, England, in the good ship, the "Mary and John." The company had been selected and assembled largely through the efforts of the Reverend John White, of Dorchester, England, with whom they spent the day before sailing, "fasting, preaching and praying." These people had come from the western counties of England, mostly from Devonshire, Dorsetshire and Somerset. They had chosen two ministers to accompany them, men who were interested in the idea of bringing the Indians to the knowledge of the gospel. The Reverend John Maverick was an elderly man from Devon, a minister of the established church. Reverend John Warham was also an ordained minister of the church of England, in Exeter, eminent as a preacher. There is some evidence that both of these men were in some difficulties with the church on account of their sympathies with the Puritans.

It had been their original intent to land in the Charles River, but a dispute with Captain Squeb, the commander of the vessel caused the whole company, on May 30, 1630, to be put ashore at Nantasket. The "Mary and John" was the first of the fleet of 1630 to arrive in the bay. At that time there could not have been pilots, or charts of the channel, and it does not seem unreasonable that the Captain refused to undertake the passage.

According to tradition they landed upon the south side of Dorchester Neck, or South Boston, in Old Harbor. Ten of the men, under the command of Captain Southcote, found a small boat, and went up the river to Charlestown Neck, where they found an old planter, who fed them "a dinner of fish without bread." Later they continued their journey up the Charles River, as far as what is now Watertown, returning several days later to the company who had found pasture for their cattle at Mattapan. 'The settlement was later called Dorchester, in honor of the Reverend John White, of Dorchester, England.

Many hardships followed, they had little food, and were forced to live on clams and fish. The men built small boats, and the Indians came with baskets of corn. The place was a true wilderness.

Here they lived for five or six years. Other boats arrived and other towns were settled. But the life at Dorchester was not entirely congenial to the lovers of liberty of the "Mary and John." The group of settlements around Massachusetts Bay was dominated by clergymen and officials of aristocratic tendencies. Their Governor, John Winthrop, had little sympathy with the common people. "The best part (of the people)," he declared, "is always the least, and that best part, the wiser is always the lesser." And the Reverend John Cotton put it more bluntly when he said, "Never did God ordain democracy for the government of the church or the people."

These principles were repugnant to the people of the "Mary and John," who had come to America to escape such restraint. They had no wish to interfere with the methods of worship of others, and they did not wish others to interfere with them. Too, they were land-hungry, after centuries of vassalage to the lords of the manors, leading hopeless lives without chance of independence. Perhaps they were influenced also, by the fact that a great smallpox epidemic had raged among the Indians, killing off so many that they were not the menace that they had been at first. The settlers turned their attention toward the fertile meadows of the Connecticut Valley.

In October, 1635, about 60 men, women and children set forth from Dorchester to Connecticut, their furniture, etc., was sent around by water. 'The compass was their only guide. After a tedious and difficult march through the swamp and rivers and over mountains and rough ground, they arrived safely at their destination. They had lost so much time in passing rivers, etc., that winter was upon them before they were prepared. By November 15th, the cold was so intense that the river was frozen over and the snow very deep. By December 1st, the provisions gave out and famine and death stared them in the face. Some started through the wilderness for Boston, but the greater number on December 3rd, took passage on the Rebecca, a vessel of 60 tons, but she ran aground on the bar at the mouth of the river and they were obliged to unload to get her off. After this they reached Boston in five days. Those that remained at Hartford just managed to keep from starving by the help of the Indians and eating acorns, etc. Hartford was called Suckiage by the Indians by the Dutch on the point in 1633, the Huise (or house) of Good Hope and Newtown, by the English on their arrival to form a settlement in 1636. The name was changed to Hartford by the court, February 21, 1636.

According to old family records, Richard Bidwell and son, John were passengers on the vessel, "Mary and John" coming to America in 1630 to make a new life for themselves on this new land. It is uncertain in what exact location in England this Bidwell family had resided before coming to America, but according to notes of family historian, Frederick David Bidwell 1873-1947 he states that Richard Bidwell and son John came from County Devon.

Through correspondence dated 1979, between Rev, John Scott, Vicar of Newton St. Cyres in County Devon, and Robert F. Bidwell of Urbana, Ohio, we are informed that a manor is located in Newton St. Cyres called Bidwell Barton, which according to parish historical materials, was where the Bidwell family lived in the 16th Century and was the beginning of the Bidwell family in England, and presumably where the family took it's name. Rev. Scott states the fact that the parish records contain a mass of entries relating to the Bidwell family, including the baptism of a John Bidwell, who may be the son of Richard Bidwell. However, no documented proof has been found that Richard Bidwell was the name of the father of John, Joseph, Samuel and Richard, although all evidence certainly leads one to believe this is the correct relationship.


The Map of History: John Bidwell’s California

Sorry it’s grainy and shaky in the beginning but it’s a video of an old VHS.

John Bidwell was a pioneer, soldier, farmer, founder, salesman, philanthropist, and eyewitness to much of the state’s eventful past. In the great eras of California’s history – the Mexican Period, the American conquest, the vibrant days of 󈧵, and the building of the “Golden State” – Bidwell participated actively and contributed richly.

While serving in Congress in Washington, D.C., Bidwell met Annie Ellicott Kennedy. They married in 1868 and dedicated themselves to a life based on progressive ideas and lofty ideals. The Bidwells worked for election reform, control of monopolies, women’s suffrage, temperance, and the humane treatment of Indians. The Bidwells freely gave of their time, funds and property for community improvement. The most substantial gift was the 2,200 acres of Rancho Chico now known as Bidwell Park. With historic photographs and John’s own words, this video reveals John Bidwell’s contribution to California History.

Script Writer: John Werminski
Producer/Director/Videographer/Editor: Sunny C. Bell
Narrators: Philip Carey, Maggie Gisslow, Sunny C. Bell
Original Music: REEDMUSIC
Cover Photos: DPR Files & John Werminski


In the winter of 1840, the Western Emigration Society was founded in Missouri, with 500 pledging to trek west into Mexican California. Members included Baldridge, Barnett, Bartleson, Bidwell and Nye. Organized on 18 May 1841, Talbot H. Green was elected president, John Bidwell secretary, and John Bartleson captain. The group joined Father Pierre Jean De Smet's Jesuit missionary group, led by Thomas F. Fitzpatrick, westward across South Pass along the Oregon Trail. That trail took them past Courthouse and Jail Rocks, Chimney Rock, Scotts Bluff, Fort Laramie, and Independence Rock. The Bartleson-Bidwell party separated from Fitzpatrick, and the missionary group, at Soda Springs on 11 Aug. [1] : 8–12

The western Emigration Society had resolved to follow the route suggested by Dr. John Marsh. As early as 1837, Marsh realized that owning a great rancho was problematic if he could not hold it. The corrupt and unpredictable rulings by courts in California (then part of Mexico) made this questionable. With evidence that the Russians, French and English were preparing to seize the province, he determined to make it a part of the United States. He felt that the best way to go about this was to encourage emigration by Americans to California, and in this way the history of Texas would be repeated. [2] [3]

Marsh conducted a letter-writing campaign espousing the California climate, soil and other reasons to settle there, as well as the best route to follow, which became known as "Marsh's route." His letters were read, reread, passed around, and printed in newspapers throughout the country, and started the first significant immigration to California. [4] He invited immigrants to stay on his ranch until they could get settled, and assisted in their obtaining passports. [5] [6]

Marsh's recommended route, the California Trail, was based on the prior experiences of Jedediah Smith, Peter Skene Ogden, and Joseph R. Walker. That route led southwest from Soda Springs along the Bear River and the Cache Valley. On 24 Aug., the party headed west and north around the Great Salt Lake, camping in the vicinity of the Hansel Mountains until 9 Sept., while they scouted the route to Mary's River. By 12 Sept., wagons and possessions were beginning to be abandoned. By 9 Oct., they crossed Mary's River and headed west to Lake Humboldt, Humboldt Sink, and Carson Sink. On 30 Oct., they passed through the Stanislaus River canyon into the San Joaquin Valley. On 4 Nov. 1841, the party made it to Marsh's ranch. [7] [1] : 8–15

According to Doyce Nunis, ". the Bidwell-Bartleson party had successfully made the first planned overland emigrant journey to California, bearing with courage and great fortitude the vicissitudes of their ordeal. These hardy pioneers were the harbingers of many thousands to come." [1] : 15


A year celebrating Chico founder John Bidwell

CHICO — It may be hard to celebrate the life of a man who’s been dead for more than a century, but there’s a long list of activities over the next few months in association with the 200th anniversary of John Bidwell’s birthday in August.

Organizers hope not only to celebrate Chico’s founder but to help the community understand his role in the country, state and north state in the 1800s.

“Bidwell had extensive history beyond Chico. He was a part of early California, part of the first wagon train here. He found gold in the Feather River,” said Adrienne Glatz, president of the Bidwell Mansion Association, which is behind the celebration, and partnering with other groups.

Beyond being the founder of Chico, he also was a farmer and rancher who liked to be innovative with plants.

According to text on the Bidwell Mansion website, Bidwell “… developed a diverse array of agricultural operations that served as an example for farms across the state. These included extensive wheat fields, a famous flour mill, and thousands of fruit trees. He pioneered a number of crops that have since become important California staples such as raisins, almonds, and walnuts, as well as experimenting with more exotic foods such as Egyptian corn and Casaba melons. At one time he could claim to be growing over 400 different varieties of crops on Rancho Chico.”

The mansion association has come up with a year of discovering Bidwell, from a melon-growing contest featuring the casabas he developed to local historians and authors talking about the ups and downs of his life.

Slice of Chico

The next event will be Saturday, July 13, with the downtown Chico celebration of Slice of Chico, and that night’s Twilight Family Night.

The Downtown Chico Business Association’s annual Slice of Chico focuses on a daytime retail celebration of downtown stores and businesses, but is remembered for its free watermelon slices. Packets of Bidwell’s casaba melon seeds from Chico’s Sustainable Seed Co., will be given away.

The Bidwell Mansion Association will have a booth in downtown that day, with more details about the year-long celebration.

Melon

There was hope that samples of his melon could be served during Slice of Chico, but the weird weather hasn’t helped the plants that are being grown.

“Apparently, the casaba melon was Bidwell’s favorite fruit,” Glatz said. “He served it as dessert to his guests.”

The football-shaped melon grows to be huge, perhaps up to 15 pounds, which is larger than a regular casaba melon. Bidwell grew them in the late 1860s, and seeds of Bidwell’s Casaba Melon are still available through commercial outlets like Sustainable Seed Co. in Chico. The latter, which is online but has a retail site on East 20th Street, is sold out at the moment.

Apparently the seeds were distributed earlier this year to various circles to see who could grow the largest melon. Fingers are crossed that some may develop in time for the Aug. 4 birthday event.

Bidwell’s journey

Also on July 13, at 7 p.m. will be Twilight Family Night at Bidwell Mansion, 525 The Esplanade. Sitting around a campfire, mansion volunteers will be sharing information about Bidwell’s influence and journeys.

Born in New York, Bidwell was on the first overland emigrant wagon train to California, and was the first settler to discover gold in the Feather River. His travels ranged throughout the West and California.

Kalendar

The celebration of Bidwell actually started with the Pioneer Day Parade in May, when John and Annie Bidwell were among the community parade’s grand marshals. Nick Anderson portrayed Bidwell, and Robyn Engel was Mrs. Bidwell.

It continued on Memorial Day at Chico Cemetery, when Bidwell Mansion’s Glatz talked about Bidwell’s military service, sharing information that local historian and mansion volunteer Nancy Leek had gathered.

Bidwell participated in the Mexican-American War through the Bear Flag Revolt, as well as the American Civil War. He also held a number of political seats, including the US House of Representatives and California Senate, and ran for both governor of California and U.S president.

The most recent event in Bidwell’s celebration was on June 22, with Annie’s Tea, celebrating Annie Bidwell’s 180th birthday. Bidwell married Annie Ellicott Kennedy in 1868. She died in 1918, and the couple is buried in Chico Cemetery.

Getting to know Bidwell

After reading Leek’s information on John Bidwell, even Glatz said, “There were things I didn’t know about John. There is a lot the community doesn’t know as well.”

What little is learned in school or from history readings about Bidwell are just the basics, she said.

His life “was so much deeper than what we see at the initial level. He was an amazing person,” Glatz said.

Bidwell was born Aug. 5, 1819, in Chautauqua County, New York and died April 4, 1900 in Chico.

Aug. 4 will be when the association celebrates his 200th birthday from 4 to 6 p.m. at the mansion with music, games, cake and ice cream.

Other events throughout the year include:

  • Sept. 8 Admission Day celebration at the mansion
  • Sept 7-9 Annie’s Star Quilt Guild exhibit at Bidwell Mansion
  • Nov. 2 Farm City at Bidwell Mansion honors Bidwell’s agricultural legacy
  • Nov. 2 Local historians and authors roundtable discussion on John Bidwell at the Chico Museum.
  • Dec. 6 Christmas with the Bidwells, 6-8 p.m. Bidwell Mansion

Besides being founder of Chico in 1860, Bidwell also:

— Was the secretary of the first overland emigrant wagon train to set out for California

— Was the first settler to discover gold in the Feather River at Bidwell’s Bar

— Acquired Rancho del Arroyo Chico, a 22,000-acre Mexican land grant in 1849

— Donated land for Chico’s City Plaza, churches and local schools including the Chico Normal School for teaching teachers, which became the foundation for Chico State University.

— Served in the California Battalion during the Mexican-American War, where he attained the rank of major. He was also a brigadier general in the California Militia during the American Civil War, raising troops and supporting the Union side.

— Was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1864, where he voted for the Civil Right Act of 1866 and the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which granted citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States,” which included former slaves recently freed.

— Served in the first California State Senate, and ran twice for California’s governor

— In 1892 became the Prohibition Party candidate for U.S. president

Bidwell Mansion

Bidwell Mansion is a state historic park that was the couple’s home from 1868 until 1900. Mrs. Bidwell continued to live there until her death in 1918.


Bartleson-Bidwell Party

John Bidwell (1819-1900) was a pioneer, agriculturist, and politician from California.

The first emigrants to cross Utah with wagons came in 1841, six years before the Mormon pioneers, this party numbered thirty-two men and one woman, who carried a baby daughter in one arm and led a horse with the other. Nancy Kelsey, barely eighteen years old and the first white woman ever to see Great Salt Lake, was later remembered for her “heroism, patience and kindness.”

Named in part after its captain, John Bartleson, the party had numbered more than sixty when it assembled in May 1841 at Sapling Grove, near Westport, Missouri, for the journey to John Marsh’s California ranch at the foot of Mount Diablo in present-day Contra Costa County. Its most active organizer was twenty-one-year-old John Bidwell, who kept a daily diary of the journey.

Moving west, the emigrants traveled over the emerging Oregon Trail with Father De Smet and a Jesuit party guided by the renowned mountain man, Thomas “Broken Hand” Fitzpatrick. At Soda Springs, in present Caribou County, Idaho, about half of the original party decided to play it safe and continue on to Oregon.

The more resolute members, holding to their original destination, headed nine wagons south down Bear River “with no guide, no compass, nothing but the sun to direct them” toward the present border of Utah. Their track never became a trail and has long since disappeared, but as traced by historian Roy Tea using the Bidwell and Johns journals, the emigrants crossed the 42nd parallel into Utah on 16 August and camped near present-day Clarkston.

Intending to rest in Cache Valley while several men sought directions at Fort Hall, the party mistakenly crossed the low range just north of the Gates of the Bear to arrive in the Great Salt Lake Valley near present Fielding. After fording the Malad River opposite Plymouth, they continued south through the future towns of Garland and Tremonton until, desperate for water, they headed east to strike the Bear River, just south of Corinne.

The party then headed northwest, intersecting its own trail, to skirt the north end of the Great Salt Lake, find the Mary’s River (now the Humboldt), which, it was then believed, flowed from the lake to the Sacramento River, and follow it to California. They crossed Promontory Mountain on the route of the later transcontinental railroad and passed just north of Kelton to rest at Ten Mile Spring near the base of the Raft River Mountains.

Crossing Park Valley to the south of the present town, they came on 11 September to Owl Spring, just north of Lucin, where Kentuckian Benjamin Kelsey abandoned his wagons and put his wife and baby on horseback. Two days later, the emigrants were the first of many to arrive at Pilot Peak on the Utah-Nevada border and find relief at the freshwater springs at its base.

On the line of modern Interstate 80, the party crossed Silver Zone Pass and abandoned its remaining wagons at Relief Springs in Gosiute Valley, east of Wells, where the wagons were found in 1846 by Hastings Cutoff emigrants. The rest of the journey was a race with starvation which all barely won on November 4 when they arrived, destitute and almost naked, at Marsh’s Los Medanos Rancho. Some members of the Bartleson-Bidwell company later gained renown, including Bidwell and noted trails captain Joseph B. Chiles. Known for her courage and optimism, Nancy Kelsey, the first white woman ever to see Utah, died in California at age seventy-three.

See: Charles Hopper, “Narrative of Charles Hopper, A California Pioneer of 1841,” Utah Historical Quarterly 3 (1930) Charles Kelly, Salt Desert Trails (1930) Roderick J. Korns, “West from Fort Bridger,” Utah Historical Quarterly 19 (1951) David E. Miller, First Wagon Train to Cross Utah, 1841,” Utah Historical Quarterly 30 (1962) Dale L. Morgan, The Great Salt Lake (1947).


Bidwell Lore – From England to the Colonies in 1630

Welcome to the second week of Bidwell Lore! Last week we introduced you to Adonijah Bidwell, the man responsible for building the Bidwell House. In this post, we are going to go back in time, even before Adonijah was born, to look at the history of the Bidwell Family name and how the Bidwells ended up traveling to 17th century New England.

The Bidwell Name
According to Edwin M. Bidwell, in his 1884 tome Genealogy of the First Seven Generations of The Bidwell Family in America, the last name Bidwell derives from the Saxon name Biddulph, meaning ‘War Wolf’. He believed that the name originated in Norfolk on the eastern coast of England and the meaning certainly evokes strong images of the Reverend’s distant ancestors. Even today, there is a town of Biddulph, outside of Stoke-on-Trent in Staffordshire England.

1634 Map of Boston Harbor

Arrival of the Bidwell Family in America

Bidwell House Museum Board Member and Bidwell descendant Rick Wilcox has put together this look at the journey of the Bidwell Family to America in 1630. It has been slightly edited for space. Thank you Rick!

On March 20, 1630, 140 men and women, including Richard Bidwell (1587-1647) and his son John Bidwell (1620-1687), set sail from Plymouth, England, in the good ship, the “Mary and John.” The company had been selected and assembled largely through the efforts of the Reverend John White, of Dorchester, England, with whom they spent the day before sailing, ‘fasting, preaching, and praying.’ These people had come from the western counties of England, mostly from Devonshire, Dorsetshire, and Somerset. They had chosen two ministers to accompany them, men who were interested in the idea of bringing the Indian to the knowledge of the Gospel. The Reverend John Maverick was an elderly man from Devon, a minister of the established church. Reverend John Warham was also an ordained minister of the Church of England, in Exeter, eminent as a preacher. There is some evidence that both of these men were in difficulties with the church on account of their sympathies with the Puritans.

It had been the original intent to land in the Charles River, but a dispute with Captain Squeb, the commander of the vessel caused the whole company, on May 30, 1630, to be put ashore at Nantasket. The ‘Mary and John’ was the first of the fleet of 1630 to arrive in the bay. At that time there were no pilots or charts of the channel, and it does not seem unreasonable that the captain refused to undertake the passage. According to tradition they landed upon the south side of Dorchester Neck, or South Boston, in Old Harbor. The settlement was later called Dorchester, in honor of the Reverend John White, of Dorchester, England.

Many hardships followed they had little food and were forced to live on clams and fish. The men built small boats, and the Indians came with baskets of corn. The place was a true wilderness. Here they lived for five or six years. Other boats arrived and other towns were settled. But life at Dorchester was not entirely congenial to the lovers of liberty of the ‘Mary and John.’ The group of settlements around Massachusetts Bay was dominated by clergy and officials of aristocratic tendencies. Their Governor, John Winthrop, had little sympathy with the common people. ‘The best part (of the people),’ he declared, ‘is always the least, and the best part, the wiser is always the lesser.’ And the Reverend John Cotton put it more bluntly when he said, ‘Never did God ordain democracy for the government of the church or the people.’

These principles were repugnant to the people of the ‘Mary and John,’ who had come to America to escape such restraint. They had no wish to interfere with the methods of worship of others, and they did not wish others to interfere with them. Too, they were land-hungry, after centuries of vassalage to the lords of the manors, leading hopeless lives without chance of independence. The settlers turned their attention toward the fertile meadows of the Connecticut Valley.

In October 1635, about 60 men, women, and children, led by the Reverend Jon Hooker, set forth from Dorchester to Connecticut. The compass was their only guide. After a tedious and difficult march through swamp and rivers and over mountains and rough ground, they arrived safely at their destination. They had lost so much time in passing rivers, etc., that winter was upon them before they were prepared. By November 15 th , the cold was so intense that the river was frozen over and the snow was very deep. By December 1 st , the provisions gave out and famine and death stared them in the face. Some started back to Boston through the wilderness, others took passage on the Rebecca, a vessel of sixty tons. Those that remained at Hartford just managed to keep from starving by the help of the Indians and eating acorns, etc. Hartford was originally called Suckiage by the Pequot, reportedly meaning Black Earth by the Dutch on the point in 1633, the Huise (or house) of Good Hope and Newtown by the English on their arrival to form a settlement in 1636. The name was changed to Hartford by the court, February 21, 1636. As you may remember from last week, Adonijah Bidwell was born in Hartford in 1716.

According to old family records, Richard Bidwell and son, John, came to America in 1630 to make a new life for themselves on this new land. It is uncertain in what exact location in England this Bidwell family had resided before coming to America, but according to notes of family historian, Frederick David Bidwell (1873-1947), he states that Richard Bidwell and son John came from County Devon.

Through correspondence dated 1979 between Rev. John Scott, Vicar of Newton St. Cyres in County Devon and Robert F. Bidwell of Urbana, Ohio, we are informed that a manor is located in Newton St. Cyres called Bidwell Barton, which, according to parish historical materials, was where the Bidwell family lived in the 16 th century and was the beginning of the Bidwell family in England, and presumably where the family took its name.

Bidwell Lineage – Richard Bidwell to Reverend Adonijah Bidwell

RICHARD BIDWELL b 1587 d. Dec. 1647 He was an early settler at Windsor, Connecticut, and is called Goodman Bidwell in some records. The identity of his wife is unknown.
Djeca:
2. John Bidwell b. 1620 d. 1687
3. Hannah Bidwell b. 22 Oct. 1634 d. 7 Oct 1679
4. Joseph Bidwell d. 1672
5. Samuel Bidwell
6. Richard Bidwell

2. John Bidwell b. 1620 d. 1687 Hartford, Connecticut
m. 1640 Sarah Wilcox at Hartford, Connecticut, b. 1623 d. 15 June 1690, Hartford, Connecticut, dau. of John and Mary Wilcox. Sarah’s parents were born in England.
Djeca
7. John Bidwell b. 1641 d. 3 July 1692
8. Joseph Bidwell b.. 1643 d. 1692
9. Mary Bidwell b. 1647 d. 15 May 1725
10 Samuel Bidwell b. 1650 d. 5 Apr. 1715
11. Sarah Bidwell b. 1653
12. Hannah Bidwell b. 1655/1658 d. 17 June 1696
13 Daniel Bidwell b. 1655/1656 d. 29 Nov. 1719

7. John Bidwell b. 1641 d. 3 July 1692 m 7 Nov. 1678 Sarah Welles in Hartford b. Apr 1659. Sarah was b. in Wethersfield, Conn, granddaughter of Gov. Thomas Welles. Sarah d. 1708
19. John Bidwell b. 1 Sept 1679 d. 3 Sept 1751
20. Hannah Bidwell b. 31 Aug 1680 d. 1707
21. Sarah Bidwell b. 19 Aug 1681 d. 3 Dec. 1744
22. Thomas Bidwell b. 27 Dec. 1682 d. 17 Sept. 1716
23. Jonathan Bidwell b. 5 March 1684 d. 24 Nov. 1612
24. Abigail Bidwell baptized 4 Apr. 1686 died young
25. David Bidwell b. 25 Feb. 1687 d. 24 June 1758
26. James Bidwell b. 1691 d. 7 May 1718

22. Thomas Bidwell b. 27 Dec. 1682 Hartford, Connecticut d. 17 Sept. 1716 at sea, m. 28 March 1710 Prudence Scott b. 1683 New Haven, Connecticut, d. 14 Feb. 1763 Wintonbury, Connecticut
105. A child b. 29 May 1710 d. 29 May 1710
106. Thomas Bidwell b. 16 May 1711 d. 1746
107. Abigail Bidwell b. 18 Aug. 1713
108 Jonathan Bidwell b. 12 Jan. 1715 d. 11 June 1787
109. Adonijah Bidwell b. 18 Oct. 1716 d. 2 June 1784

Bidwell Family History 1587-1982, Volume I numbering system, also the source of the Bidwell Family History.


John Bidwell

photo courtesy of Friends of Bidwell Park, licensed under Creative Commons ShareAlike 2.5 License Grave site at Chico Cemetery General

John Bidwell (August 5, 1819 – April 4, 1900) was a son of Abraham Bidwell and Clarissa Griggs. John Bidwell first arrived in California with the Bartleson-Bidwell party in November of 1841 and were one of the first set of families to cross the continent. 1 He made his fortunes during the California Gold Rush, striking it rich at what is known as Bidwell's Bar at the Middle Fork Feather River. It is now entirely under Lake Oroville. He used this wealth to purchase land, including much of Chico. He married Annie Ellicott Kennedy Bidwell in Washington D.C. April 16, 1868. Some of the people present at their wedding included President Andrew Johnson and Generals Ulysses S. Grant and Tecumseh Sherman. 2. He was an integral part of the history of Chico.

John Bidwell's memorial address Bidwell Memorial Address.pdf was written and read by W. J. Costar on April 29, 1900.

This entry is a seed, a starting point for writing a full entry. You can help LocalWiki Chico by expanding it! Just click the "Edit" button.

John Bidwell - Biography

Bidwell was born in Chautauqua County, New York. The Bidwell family moved to Erie, Pennsylvania in 1829, and then to Ashtabula County, Ohio in 1831. At age 17, he attended and shortly thereafter became Principal of Kingsville Academy.

In 1841 Bidwell became one of the first emigrants on the California Trail. John Sutter employed Bidwell as his business manager shortly after Bidwell's arrival in California. Shortly after the James W. Marshall's discovery at Sutter's Mill, Bidwell also discovered gold on the Feather River establishing a productive claim at Bidwell Bar in advance of the California Gold Rush. Bidwell obtained the four square league Rancho Los Ulpinos Mexican land grant in 1844, and the two square league Rancho Colus grant on the Sacramento River in 1845 later selling that grant and buying Rancho Arroyo Chico on Chico Creek to establish a ranch and farm.

Bidwell obtained the rank of major while fighting in the Mexican-American War. He served in the California Senate in 1849, supervised the census of California in 1850 and again in 1860. He was a delegate to the 1860 national convention of the Democratic Party. He was appointed brigadier general of the California Militia in 1863. He was a delegate to the national convention of the Republican Party in 1864 and was a Republican member of Congress from 1865 to 1867.

In 1865, General Bidwell backed a petition from settlers at Red Bluff, California to protect Red Bluff's trail to the Owhyhee Mines of Idaho. The U.S. Army commissioned 7 forts for this purpose, and selected a site near Fandango Pass at the base of the Warner Mountains in the north end of Surprise Valley, and on June 10, 1865 ordered Fort Bidwell to be built there. The fort was built amid escalating fighting with the Snake Indians of eastern Oregon and southern Idaho. It was a base for operations in the Snake War that lasted until 1868 and the later Modoc War. Although traffic dwindled on the Red Bluff route once the Central Pacific Railroad extended into Nevada in 1868, the Army staffed Fort Bidwell to quell various uprisings and disturbances until 1890. A Paiute reservation and small community maintain the name Fort Bidwell.

His wife, Annie Kennedy Bidwell, was the daughter of Joseph C. G. Kennedy, a socially prominent, high ranking Washington official in the United States Bureau of the Census who was active in the Whig party. She was deeply religious, and committed to a number of moral and social causes. Annie was very active in the suffrage and prohibition movements.

The Bidwells were married April 16, 1868 in Washington, D.C. with then President Andrew Johnson and future President Ulysses S. Grant among the guests. Upon arrival in Chico, the Bidwells used their mansion extensively for entertainment of friends. Some of the guests who visited Bidwell Mansion were President Rutherford B. Hayes, General William T. Sherman, Susan B. Anthony, Frances Willard, Governor Leland Stanford, John Muir, Joseph Dalton Hooker and Asa Gray.

In 1875 Bidwell ran for Governor of California on the Anti-Monopoly Party ticket. As a strong advocate of the temperance movement, he presided over the Prohibition Party state convention in 1888 and was the Prohibition candidate for governor in 1880.

In 1892, Bidwell was the Prohibition Party candidate for President of the United States. The Bidwell/Cranfill ticket received 271,058 votes, or 2.3% nationwide. It was the largest total vote and highest percentage of the vote received by any Prohibition Party national ticket.

John Bidwell's autobiography, Echoes of the Past, was published in 1900.

Read more about this topic: John Bidwell

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John Bidwell and California

"Defying all odds, Gillis and Magliari have established that academics can indeed write history in a readable way. They put together a wonderfully intelligent--sometimes downright thrilling--narrative at the beginning of each section. Then they amplify it all with Bidwell's own writings. the initial printing of this book sold out within weeks of its arrival. A second printing is now selling briskly."

Gregory Franzwa
Former president of the Oregon-California Trails Association
Review in the May 2003 issue of   Folio

"Gillis and Magliari. invested eight years of intensive and extensive research to present a more balanced view of John Bidwell, his accomplishments, and his failures. The result is clearly the definitive account of a complex man. This is not a revisionist account, but a thorough analysis and presentation of the historical record. Controversial issues. are explored and presented in an even-handed manner. Interesting facts abound throughout. The sixteen-page bibliography, a boon to future researchers and historians, stands as a testament to the research that has gone into this book. _John Bidwell and California_ is highly-informative and a great pleasure to read it is well-written, with no wasted words and without the verbosity found in some scholarly works. A few words (such as hagiography and kulturkampf) may give pause or have the reader reaching for the dictionary, but they are a rarity. Enjoy!"

Andrew Hammond
Review in Spring 2003 issue of   Overland Journal

College of Humanities & Fine Arts (HFA)

We acknowledge and are mindful that Chico State stands on lands that were originally occupied by the first people of this area, the Mechoopda, and we recognize their distinctive spiritual relationship with this land and the waters that run through campus. We are humbled that our campus resides upon sacred lands that once sustained the Mechoopda people for centuries.


Pogledajte video: John Bidwell owner of Highlodge in Suffolk chats to George about his career to date


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