Kraljevina Malacca - Historija

Kraljevina Malacca - Historija


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Kraljevina Malacca osnovana je na Malajskom poluotoku u današnjoj Indoneziji. Malacca, koju je osnovao Paramesvara, uskoro je postala vodeća pomorska sila u jugoistočnoj Aziji.

Malacca historija utječe na sadašnjost

Današnja Malaka u Maleziji odražava njenu burnu istoriju-više rasna populacija Malezijaca, Indijanaca i Kineza ovaj istorijski grad naziva domom. Najvažnije, zajednice Peranakana i Portugalaca još uvijek uspijevaju u Malaki, podsjećajući na dugogodišnje iskustvo države u trgovini i kolonizaciji.

Za osnivača Malake, bivšeg gusara princa Paramesware, rečeno je da je potomak Aleksandra Velikog, ali je vjerojatnije da je bio hinduistički politički izbjeglica sa Sumatre.

Prema legendi, princ se jednog dana odmarao ispod indijskog drveta ogrozda (poznatog i kao melaka). Dok je promatrao jednog od svojih lovačkih pasa koji je pokušavao srušiti jelena miša, palo mu je na pamet da je jelen imao sličnu situaciju kao i on: sam, prognan u stranoj zemlji i okružen neprijateljima. Miš jelen je tada postigao nevjerovatno i borio se sa psom.

Parameswara je odlučio da je mjesto na kojem je sjedio pogodno za pobjedu ugroženih, pa je odlučio izgraditi kuću na licu mjesta.

Malacca se zaista pokazala kao povoljno mjesto za osnivanje grada, zbog svoje zaštićene luke, obilnog snabdijevanja vodom i odlične lokacije u odnosu na regionalnu trgovinu i obrasce monsunskog vjetra.


Uspon i pad Sultanata Malacca

Sultanat Malacca bio je moćno pomorsko i trgovačko carstvo koje je oblikovalo političke, društvene i kulturne sisteme Malajskog poluotoka. Parameswara (1401. do 1511.) je bio palembang princ hinduističkog porijekla iz Srivijaye, 1402. Bio je osnivač Malake. Bježeći sjeverno od vojske Majapahita, stigao je do ribarskog sela na ušću rijeke Bertam (bivši naziv rijeke Malacca) gdje je svjedočio jelenu mišu koji je nadmudrio psa dok se odmarao pod drvetom Malacca. Uzeo je ono što je vidio kao dobar predznak i odlučio je tamo uspostaviti kraljevstvo, zvano Malacca.

Uspon Sultanata Malacca

1414. Parameswara je primio islam i promijenio ime u Megat Iskandar Shah i oženio se muslimanskom princezom iz Pasaija na Sumatri. Zbog toga je privukao muslimanske trgovce da dođu u luku Malacca. Takođe održava dobre odnose sa Ming Kinom, slao je misiju za misijom u Peking 1415, 1416 i 1418.

Do 1430 -ih godina grad je postao najistaknutiji trgovački centar u jugoistočnoj Aziji, kojem su podjednako pribjegavali lokalni trgovci, indijski, arapski i perzijski trgovci i kineske trgovačke misije. Ovi savezi pomogli su da se Malacca izgradi u veliku međunarodnu trgovačku luku i posrednika u unosnoj trgovini začinima. Središte modernog grada Malacca, sultanat se prostirao od južnog Tajlanda na sjeveru do Sumatre na jugozapadu.

Islam u regionu

Za nekoliko decenija, Sultanat Malacca postao je jedan od glavnih promotera islama u regiji. Širenju islama u regiji pridonijelo je kontinuirano prisustvo indijskih i arapskih muslimanskih trgovaca koji su dolazili sa Zapada i sa sobom donijeli svoju religiju i širili je na lokalno stanovništvo. Drugi faktor bile su brojne posjete kineskog muslimanskog admirala Zheng Hea (koji je u jugoistočnoj Aziji poznat kao Cheng Ho) koji je pomogao širenju islama po malajskom arhipelagu. Važno je napomenuti da kako je regija polako ulazila u okrilje islama, nije bilo prisilnog prelaska u religiju.

Uprava Malacca sultanata

Nakon njegove smrti 1424, Parameswaru je naslijedio njegov sin Sri Maharaja (1424–1444), a kasnije ga je naslijedio sultan Muzaffar Shah (1446–1456). On je prvi upotrijebio arapsku titulu „sultan“ i formulirao Malačke zakone poznate kao Risalah Hukum Kanun u zaštiti suvereniteta i prosperiteta Malake.

Pod sultanom Muzaffar Shahom, gradska država postala je velika teritorijalna i trgovačka sila u regiji i izvor za daljnju širenje islama unutar indonezijskog arhipelaga. Najvažniji regionalni rivali Sultanata bili su Siam na sjeveru i propadajuće carstvo Majapahit na jugu. Majapahit nije mogao kontrolirati niti se učinkovito natjecati s Malaccom unutar arhipelaga. S druge strane, Siam je tri puta napao Malaccu, ali su svi napadi odbijeni.

The Bendahara djelovao kao glavni ministar (ili današnji premijer), Temenggung djelovao kao viši sudija dok je Syahbandar morat će biti odgovorni za naoružavanje, organiziranje i komandovanje svojom zajednicom za Sultana. Ured Laksamana osnovana je za vrijeme sultana Mansur šaha (1456–1477). Dužnosti i nadležnost Laksamana trebali su brzo razvijati grad i društvo Malacca.

Dolazak Portugalaca

Krajem 1400 -ih, Kraljevina Portugal počela je tražiti nove trgovačke mogućnosti na otvorenom moru. Istraživač Vasco de Gama uspio je oploviti južni dio Afrike krajem 1400 -ih, uz pomoć muslimanskih navigatora koji su bili upoznati s Indijskim oceanom.

Ovim otkrićem u Europi, Portugal je brzo postao pomorska sila u Indijskom oceanu i pokušao je dominirati na azijskom tržištu začina. Nakon što su oko 1510. osnovali baze u indijskim gradovima kao što su Goa i Calicut, Portugalci su gledali na istok kako bi proširili svoje trgovačko carstvo.

Pad Sultanata Malacca

1511. Portugalci su odlučili osvojiti važnu luku Malacca kako bi kontrolirali trgovinu s Kinom. 25. jula 1511. godine portugalski zapovjednik Afonso de Albuquerque započeo je napad na grad. Uprkos savezništvu sa susjednim muslimanskim državama, Sultanat se nije mogao oduprijeti vrhunskom portugalskom oružju i vatrenoj moći, pa je do kraja avgusta grad osvojen.

Portugalci su ubrzo započeli izgradnju tvrđave, poznate kao A Famosa, koja je pomogla u zaštiti Portugalaca u gradu od malezijskih kontranapada. Veći dio centra grada, uključujući glavnu džamiju i zgrade vlade, uništen je kako bi se za tvrđavu osigurao kamen. Ovo je bio službeni kraj Sultanata Malacca jer je regija prvi put u svojoj povijesti došla pod stranu dominaciju.

Malacca Today

Danas je Malacca država u Maleziji i središte peranakanske kulture. Kada su kineski doseljenici prvobitno došli u Malaccu kao rudari, trgovci i saradnici, uzeli su lokalne nevjeste (javanskog, batačkog, acehnskog itd.) I usvojili mnoge lokalne običaje. Rezultat toga je zanimljiva fuzija lokalne i kineske kulture. Muškarci se oslovljavaju sa Babas, a žene Nyonyas.

Danas se u Malaki još uvijek mogu vidjeti otisci britanskih, nizozemskih i portugalskih snaga ostavljeni u utvrdama, muzejima, crkvama i kulama. Tu su kolonijalne snage prvi put stupile u kontakt s Malezijom, što je na kraju oblikovalo zemlju u njen trenutni ekonomski i politički sistem.


Hang Tuah budalo

Postojala je i tvrdnja da je italijanski renesansni slikar i dvosmisleni genije Leonardo Da Vinci jednom sreo ratnika iz Malake Hang Tuaha. Nisam siguran kakav je odnos između stvarne osobe koja sreće izmišljenu osobu. Sumnjam da je budala iz Kraljevstva Malacca imala sastanak, inače bi neke Da Vinčijeve inteligencije bile izbrisane zbog moronizma mitskog ratnika iz Malake, a Tuah bi imao malo mozga za razmišljanje.

Tuah ne bi bio Hang Ketuat (onaj sa žuljevitim mozgom i niskim mentalnim sposobnostima) slijedeći naredbu ljigavog sultana iz Malake koji nije vrijedan pamćenja kao malajskog vladara. Kako drugačije naša djeca mogu objasniti da sultan ne može učiniti ništa loše naredivši svom Lakšmani da otme Tun Teju u Pahangu kako bi vladar zadovoljio njegovu požudu – samo zato što ima moć naređivati ​​svojim budalama?

Moramo naučiti svoju djecu da razbijaju te proslavljene tirane i njegovu grupu ratnika bez mozga.

Ja i#8217d kažem da moramo prestati pokušavati čak i dokazati da su beskorisni drevni malajski sultani potomci Aleksandra Makedonskog. Fokusirajte se na sadašnjost našeg postojanja i realizam koji ide uz to, umjesto da veličate glupe ratnike i shizofrene sultane iz Malake koji koriste žene kao seksualne objekte, porobljavaju ljudska bića, ubijaju vlastite ljude i nose te pokrivala za glavu čudnog izgleda da traže legitimitet i da zavaraju podanike u potčinjavanje.

Tu istoriju Malacca -e trebamo ispraviti i poučiti djecu jednom zauvijek.

U tome leži potreba da se djeci u školi daju oruđa za ispitivanje istorije i da stvore vlastito razumijevanje onoga što se u istoriji dogodilo, ko je napisao pripovijesti i kako bismo trebali stvarati vlastite heroje. Trebali bismo ih naučiti ružnoći feudalne kulture i nemoralnom unutrašnjem funkcioniranju Malacca sultanata.

Živimo u svijetu CI3 i svijesti, pojedinaca, institucija, ideologije koji dominira ljudskom psihom.

Živimo u svijetu koji zahtijeva naše razumijevanje semiotike i kibernetike sopstva kako bismo razumjeli kako čitati sebe i svijet unutar i izvan nas kako bismo konstruirali, dekonstruirali i rekonstruirali naše unutrašnje i vanjske poglede na svijet da bismo život vidjeli kao složen proces stvaranja sebe i ponovnog stvaranja našeg svijeta koji se neprestano mijenja kako bi stekao osjećaj šta je ‘core ’ ako zaista postoji osoba koja linearnost i višedimenzionalnost naše izmišljene stvarnosti vidi kao jednu mi sami kao organski mehanizam velike naracije sa više podzapleta bez narativne strukture i kao složen roman bez zapleta već priče koja moli da nam se ispriča – o radostima i patnji i značenju i besmislu da haos vidimo kao lijep obrazac slučajnost u ovladavanju umjetnošću biti metafizički anarhist koji će koristiti osjećaj bića da se odupre hegemonističkoj moći pojedinaca, institucija i ideologije kako bi dominirao i uništio sebe … an d mnogo više … u suštini: … živite slobodno – ili umirite sretni u rukama države i vjerske, kulturne ili bilo koje ideologije … da biste živjeli, voljeli, oslobađali i umirali smijući se tiranima, totalitaristima režima i teokratija.

Moramo naučiti svoju djecu da prepisuju istoriju, da preispituju tvrdnje o slavoljublju, feudalnoj ideologiji, a zatim da ih napišu da pišu svoju istoriju najbližu svom porodičnom ponosu i sjećanju. Zašto ih tjerati da pamte slavu drugih ljudi? Od priča o starim sultanima i#8217 požude za seksom, moći i novcem? I danas – nismo li#8217 vidjeli dovoljno licemjerstvo vladara takozvanih islamskih zemalja?

Dr. Azly Rahman

Dr. Azly Rahman je akademik, pedagog, međunarodni kolumnist i autor devet knjiga. Doktorirao je na Univerzitetu Columbia (New York City) doktorat iz međunarodnog razvoja obrazovanja i magistrirao u šest oblasti: obrazovanje, međunarodni odnosi, mirovne studije, komunikacija, beletristika i nenamjensko pisanje. Član je poglavlja Univerziteta Columbia u Međunarodnom društvu časti Kappa Delta Pi u obrazovanju. Twitter @azlyrahman. Više napisa ovde. Njegovu posljednju knjigu, memoare, objavila je Penguin Books, dostupna je ovdje.

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Povijesni grad Malacca

Prije mnogo godina Malacca je bila jedna od najtraženijih destinacija u Maleziji. Prije nego što se Kuala Lumpur iz džungle zaražene malarijom pretvorio u uglačan glavni grad, Malacca je bila jedna od najvećih trgovačkih luka u jugoistočnoj Aziji. Vremenom se iz uspješne luke pretvorio u uspavani zaleđeni grad i izgubio svoje mjesto destinacije koju mora posjetiti svojim rođacima.

Ipak, posljednjih godina Malacca je zbog brojnih povijesnih atrakcija oživljena kao mjesto za odmor na odmoru. Dom poznate kuhinje Nyonya, popularno odredište turista koji žele baciti pogled na jedinstvenu baštinu Malezije i Rska.

Malacca Pregled

Malacca je žarište malajskog, kineskog, indijskog, evropskog i raznih utjecaja. Malezijci hvale opuštenu atmosferu Malacca & rsquosa i osjećaje izgubljenog vremena koje se ovdje rano zatvaraju, promet se odvija laganim tempom, a gradski život je trom posao. Između razbacanih povijesnih mjesta nalaze se atmosferski kineski frontovi trgovina i tradicionalni malajski kampongi. Iako se država možda ne može pohvaliti obalom od bijelog pijeska koja podsjeća na njene rođake na istočnoj obali, Malacca je vrijedna pažnje po žarištima baštine.

Kad sunce zađe, jedno od najpopularnijih gradskih odredišta je noćna tržnica Jonker Walk Night u petak i subotu na kojoj se nalazi zbirka štandova na kojima se prodaje sve osim sudopera. Ovdje možete kupiti razne sitnice, pa čak i probati neke od najpoznatijih državnih jela, uključujući sladoled od pečenih jaja i kolač od pržene rotkve. Noću pregršt barova duž bulevara postaje mini ulična zabava sa stolovima koji cure izvan trotoara i mješavinom žive muzike koja tuče cijelim područjem.

Malacca History

Nazvana Malezija & rsquos neslužbena povijesna prijestolnica, Malacca & ndash je 2008. proglašena UNESCO -vom svjetskom baštinom & ndash je jedna od najnezahtjevnijih država u zemlji. S dobrim spojem povijesnih atrakcija i ndash-a od ružičastog Stadhuysa lososa do noćne tržnice Jonker Walk & ndash Malacca također je dom sjajne hrane.

Krajem 14. stoljeća Malacca je bila jednostavno ribarsko selo. Parameswara & ndash princ u bijegu s obližnje Sumatre & ndash sletio je na obale Malacca & rsquos, osnovao grad i pretvorio ga u omiljenu luku za čekanje monsuna i ponovno snabdijevanje brodova koji plove strateškim Malačkim tjesnacem. Vremenom, zbog svog strateškog položaja između Kine i Indije, Malacca je počela monopolizirati trgovačke puteve u ovom kvadrantu svijeta. 1405. Malacca je sklopila savez s carem Mingom kako bi s vremenom osigurala zaštitu od sijamskih osvajača, kineski doseljenici koji su se vjenčali s lokalnim Malajcima rezultirali su onim što je nazvano narodima Baba Nyonya.

Nakon što su Portugalci 1511. napali Malaccu, misionari osvajači nastojali su usaditi katoličanstvo u državu, a popularnost Malacca & rsquosa se smanjila jer su muslimanski trgovci počeli izbjegavati luku. Ugled Malacca & rsquosa ponovno se povećao 1641. godine, kada je 150 godina prešao u holandske ruke, a kasnije su Britanci na kratko preuzeli kontrolu, dodatno posuđujući svojim mješavinama kulturnih utjecaja. Ipak, kako je vrijeme prolazilo, Malacca je ponovo postala uspavana zabitna država, tek u 21. stoljeću, kada je Malezija stekla neovisnost, Malacca je postala turistička karta.

Izdvajamo i značajke

  • Muzej baštine Baba Nyonya & ndash Sa kineskim namještajem od tvrdog drveta u viktorijanskom i holandskom stilu, ova gradska kuća u Peranakanu uređena je tako da izgleda kao tipična rezidencija Baba-Nyonya iz 19. stoljeća.
  • Hram Cheng Hoon Teng & ndash Značajan zbog ugravirane drvene stolarije, ovaj hram je najstariji tradicionalni kineski hram u Maleziji & rsquos. Posvećeno božici Kwan Yin, vrhunac ovog svetišta je ogrnuti lik Boginje milosrđa unutar glavne dvorane.
  • Kristova crkva & ndash Sa ogromnim bijelim križem, ova koraljno crvena zgrada je najstarija protestantska crkva u Maleziji. Izgrađen 1753. godine u znak sjećanja na stoljetnu nizozemsku vlast u Malaki, jedno je od najznačajnijih naslijeđa u gradu.
  • Jonker Street & ndash Malacca & rsquos Centralna ulica Kineske četvrti nekada je bila poznata po svojoj kolekciji antikviteta ovih dana, a najviše se ističe zbog noćne tržnice Jonker Walk Night koja se u petak i subotu prodaje po ukusnim poslasticama i ukusnim sitnicama.
  • Pomorski muzej i Pomorski muzej amp & ndash Ova masovna ponovna izgradnja Flora de la Mar jedna je od atrakcija Malacca & rsquos koje turistički najviše vrijede. Izgrađen 1990. godine, Pomorski muzej je dom datiranih rekvizita, uključujući stare karte, makete brodova, naoružanje i pribor i relikvije povezane s nautikom koji bilježe povijest Malake i Rsquosa.
  • Krstarenje rijekom Melakom & ndash 40-minutna vožnja riječnim čamcem koja vas vodi na putovanje niz & lsquoVeneciju na istoku & rsquo. Ovaj plovni put, koji je nekada bio korišten kao trgovačko i trgovačko središte za Malajski sultanat Melaka, sada je jednostavan podsjetnik na njegovu bogatu prošlost gdje prolazite pored kampungsa i starih skladišta rijeka ndash.
  • Park rijeke Melake & ndash U ovom popularnom tematskom parku nalazi se Eye on Malacca & ndash, džinovski Ferris kotač u stilu gondole & ndash koji vas vodi na lagano 20-minutno okretanje s prekrasnim pogledom na tjesnace Malacca.
  • Melaka Sultanate Palace & ndash Drvena replika originalne palače iz 15. stoljeća, ovaj kulturni muzej jedinstvena je građevina s ukrašenim drvenim rezbarijama i sadrži brojne diorame koje prikazuju atmosferu palače tog doba.
  • Porta de & rsquo Santiago (A & rsquoFamosa) & ndash Brza prilika za zaustavljanje fotografija, najbolje je posjetiti ove portugalske ruševine u kasnim večernjim satima kada sunce nije tako visoko na nebu. Penjanje na vrh možda i nije težak zadatak, ali s obzirom na činjenicu da usput jedva da ima drveća, kratko putovanje može biti užareno zbog sunca i žarkih zraka.
  • Stadhuys & ndash Ova gradska vijećnica s ružičastim lososom i rezidencija guvernera & rsquos, za koju se vjeruje da je najstarija holandska zgrada na istoku, ima nekoliko muzeja i omiljena je točka preuzimanja trishaw-a.

Dobro je znati, a šta ne smijete propustiti

  • Šta god da radite, kad posetite Malaccu, svakako ne propustite noćnu tržnicu Jonker Walk u petak i subotu. Tu su i razni vanjski i nespretni zalogaji, kao i asortiman malezijskih lokalnih delicija; isprobajte sladoled od prženih jaja, kao i kolače od ananasa iz Nyonye.
  • Svakako posjetite mnoštvo povijesnih znamenitosti Malacca & rsquos od Porta de & rsquo Santiago do zgrade Stadhuys.

Kako do tamo/Tehnički podaci

Ulaznice:
Malacca & ndash Historijski gradovi tjesnaca Malake

  • Muzej baštine Baba Nyonya: Adult & ndash RM 8 Kids & ndash RM 4
  • Pomorski muzej i pomorski muzej: Adult & ndash RM 2 Kids & ndash RM 0,50
  • Krstarenje rijekom Melakom: za odrasle - 10 RM za djecu & ndash RM 5
  • Melaka Sultanate Palace: Adult & ndash RM 2 Kids & ndash RM 0,50
  • Stadhuys: Adult & ndash RM 5 Kids RM 2

Radno vrijeme:
Malacca & ndash Historijski gradovi tjesnaca Malake

  • Muzej naslijeđa Baba Nyonya: 10:00 & ndash 12:30 & amp 14:00 & ndash 16:30 Ponedjeljak - subota
  • Hram Cheng Hoon Teng: 07:00 & ndash 19:00
  • Kristova crkva: 09:00 & ndash 17:00
  • Pomorski muzej i Pomorski muzej: 09:00 & ndash 17:30
  • Krstarenje rijekom Melakom: 09:00 & ndash 11:30 svaki dan
  • Park rijeke Melaka: 05:30 & ndash 01: 30/ svaki dan
  • Melaka Sultanate Palace: 09:00 & ndash 17:30 svaki dan
  • Stadhuys: 09:00 & ndash 17:30 Subota & ndash četvrtak i 09:00 & ndash 12.15 14:45 & ndash 17:30 petak

Kako do tamo: Malacca je otprilike tri sata udaljena od Kuala Lumpura. Firefly obavlja letove između Singapura i Malacce unutar Malezije. Postoje autobusi koji saobraćaju s brojnih lokacija za Malaccu. A-Bus Express vozi rutom KLIA i Malacca za samo 36 RM po putovanju.


Portugalska malaka 1511-1641

U vrijeme dolaska Portugalaca u azijska mora, Malaka je zahvaljujući svom strateškom položaju na istoimenom tjesnacu bila izvanredno trgovačko središte za trgovinu i manevriranje začinima. U to vrijeme Malakom je vladao muslimanski sultan. Grad je proširio svoj utjecaj na ogromnu teritoriju, koja je uključivala cijelo Malajsko poluostrvo. Njegovu luku je posjećivalo mnoštvo brodova i trgovaca iz svih tadašnjih azijskih nacija: Arabije, Perzije, Kine, Indije, Japana, Indonezije, Cejlona i Bengala. U njemu su se sakupljali i prodavali svi azijski začini: papar, klinčići, đumbir, cimet, muškatni oraščić itd.

Nakon dolaska u Indiju, Portugalci su ubrzo postali svjesni važnosti grada. Ekspedicija je doplovila do Malake 1509. godine, ali nije uspjela i sultan je zarobio i zatvorio mnoge Portugalce. 1511. godine indijski potkralj Afonso de Albuquerque odlučio je organizirati ekspediciju namijenjenu osvajanju Malake. Na čelu 1.100 – 1.200 ljudi i 14 brodova Afonso de Albuquerque stigao je u vidokrug Malake u junu 1511. godine i odmah zatražio spas Portugalaca, koji su zarobljeni u ekspediciji 1509. godine. Sultan je pokušao dobiti na vremenu da ojača odbranu grada. Bio je dobro svjestan malog broja portugalskih trupa i bio je siguran u svoju moćnu vojsku od 20.000 ljudi i 2.000 topova.

Albuquerque nije gubio vrijeme. U zoru 25. jula 1511. Portugalci su napali grad koncentrirajući napad na most na rijeci koji dijeli grad. Nakon žestoke bitke most su osvojili Portugalci, no u sumrak su bili prisiljeni povući se. Nakon nekoliko dana priprema, Portugalci su obnovili napad 10. kolovoza 1511. Albuquerque je imao pomoć nekih kineskih džukela, koji su se usidrili u luci.

Korištenje đubreta, koje su nudili kineski trgovci, bilo je odlučujuće jer su se ovi džunkovi koristili kao mostobran. Ovaj put napad je bio uspješan i Portugalci su konačno uspjeli uspostaviti mostobran u gradu. Zatim je došlo do višednevne opsade, tokom koje su Portugalci bombardovali grad. 24. avgusta 1511. Portugalci su ponovo napali samo da bi otkrili da je sultan pobjegao. Malacca je sada bila u rukama Portugalaca. Opljačkali su grad, ali su, slijedeći Albuquerqueovo naređenje, poštovali vlasništvo onih koji su bili na njihovoj strani.

BW Diffie i GD Winius u knjizi “Temelj portugalskog carstva 1415-1580 ” pišu: “zauzimanje najvećeg trgovačkog grada Azije#8217 od samo 900 Portugalaca i 200 Indijanaca mora se rangirati kao događaj u istoriji Europska ekspanzija nije ništa manje zapanjujuća od poznatijeg osvajanja Tenochtitlana od Hernanda Cortésa ”.

Porta de Santiago, portugalska utvrda (A Famosa), Malacca, Malezija. Autor T0lk

MALAKCA PORTUGSKI GRAD

Malacca je bila jedna od tri ključne točke s Goom i Hormuzom, što je Portugalu dalo kontrolu nad glavnim azijskim trgovačkim putevima. Nakon osvajanja Albuquerque je odmah naredio izgradnju tvrđave na južnoj strani rijeke. Ova tvrđava zvala se “A Famosa ”, a završena je u novembru 1511. Ruy de Brito Patalim imenovan je za kapetana “Fortaleza de Malaca ”, a oko 500 portugalskih vojnika ostavljeno je kao garnizon. Ubrzo nakon toga Albuquerque je pripremio brodove za povratak s plijenom Malake. Međutim, tokom povratka za Gou, njegov brod “Flor do Mar ” potonuo je tokom oluje, a svo blago dopremljeno u Malaki je izgubljeno. Nekoliko firentinskih trgovaca učestvovalo je u portugalskim preduzećima u Aziji. Među njima je Giovanni da Empoli bio prisutan u Malaki tokom opsade i osvajanja. Svoje je iskustvo opisao u zanimljivom pismu svom ocu.

Nakon osvajanja Malacce, politika Portugala na Malajskom poluotoku bila je ili da uspostavi saveze s lokalnim vladarima ili da uvjeri susjedna kraljevstva da prihvate portugalski suverenitet. Iz svoje baze u Johoreu stari sultan Malacca je više puta napadao Malaku 1517, 1520, 1521 i 1525. Konačno, 1583. potpisan je mirovni ugovor. Malacca je više puta bio pod opsadom 1550, 1567, 1571. Glavni neprijatelji bili su Johore i Atjeh (na Sumatri). U Malacci Albuquerque je uspostavio novu upravu, kovao novu valutu i izgradio drvenu kapelu u blizini tvrđave. Uz tvrđavu je kamena crkva posvećena “Nossa Senhora da Anunciada ” podignuta 1521. godine, a kasnije “Nossa Senhora da Assumpção ”. Dana 4. februara 1558. ova crkva je posvećena kao katedrala. Mnogi portugalski#8220Casados ​​”, uglavnom zanatlije, trgovci ili poljoprivrednici, nastanili su se u Malacci. Godine 1532. osnovana je Confraria da Misericórdia, a izgrađena je i lijepa drvena bolnica za siromašne. Crkva je takođe osnovala školu. Aktivni misionarski rad započeo je 1545. godine dolaskom svetog Franciska Ksaverskog. 1552. godine osnovana je “Câmara ” (Općinsko vijeće) Malacca.

1602.-1603. Nizozemci su blokirali Malaccu morem, ali to je bio samo prvi plahi pokušaj. 1606. Johore i Nizozemci sklopili su savez protiv Portugalaca, a 1607. ponovo su grad postavili pod opsadu. Pojačanje iz Goe prekinulo je pokušaj. Eredia je procijenila da je kršćansko stanovništvo u Malaki 1613. bilo oko 7.400. U gradu je bilo osam župa. Godine 1629. Atjeh je uložio novi veliki napor, ali su i ovoga puta Portugalci pobijedili. Nizozemci su učinili nekoliko bezuspješnih pokušaja između 1623. i 1627. godine, a 1633. godine postavljena je blokada.

Stara slika Vrata utvrde Malacca. No Copyright

Posljednja opsada portugalske Malake započela je u lipnju 1640. kada je kombinirana nizozemsko-johorska flota od 1.500 Nizozemaca, 1.500 Malajaca, 12 nizozemskih brodova, 6 brodova i 40 plovila Johore viđena iz luke Malacca. Opsada je bila izuzetno teška i gotovo 1500 Holanđana je izgubilo živote. Nakon pet mjeseci opsade, portugalski branitelji bili su bez baruta i sa ozbiljnom nestašicom hrane. Uprkos poteškoćama pod komandom Dom Manuela de Sousa Coutinha, koji je bio bolestan, uspjeli su izdržati opsadu. U vrijeme holandskog napada u lipnju 1640. u Malacci je postojao garnizon od oko 50 portugalskih vojnika, više od 300 portugalskih “Casados ​​” sa svojim porodicama i 2.000 ili 3.000 mestića i domaćih stanovnika. Dana 14. januara 1641. nizozemski zapovjednik Willemsoon Kartekoe naredio je posljednji očajnički napad. Portugalski branioci pružili su žestok konačni otpor u Fortalezi Velhi, a Nizozemci su konačno odbačeni.

U očaju, nizozemski komandant ponudio je Portugalcima časne uslove predaje. Hrabri (i na samrti) portugalski komandant prihvatio je velikodušne uslove. Umirući dva dana kasnije, Holanđani su ga sahranili uz vojne počasti u crkvi São Domingo. Tako je grad Malacca bio u portugalskim rukama od 24. avgusta 1511. do 14. januara 1641.

Potomci Portugalaca iz Malake do danas govore kreolski portugalski (Papia Kristang). Oni su kršćani i imaju portugalska prezimena. Evroazijska zajednica ima 12.000 članova na Malajskom poluostrvu.

OSTALA PORTUGSKA UTVRĐENJA U BLIZINI MALAKCE:

ILHA DAS NAUS: prva linija odbrane na moru utvrde Malacca

Portugalci su Ilha das Naus (Pulau Java ili Pulau Melaka) nazvali malim ostrvom izvan luke Malacca. 1606/1615 Portugalci su postavili bateriju na ovom ostrvu. Na Ilha das Naus Portugalci su planirali utvrđenje od 60 kvadratnih metara. Međutim, već 1638. godine postavljeni su samo temelji utvrde Ilha das Naus, a njeni zidovi još uvijek nisu bili dovršeni kada su nizozemske snage za invaziju uplovile u luku Malacca dvije godine kasnije. Iz tog razloga Portugalci su morali napustiti svoje djelomično dovršeno utvrđenje bez ispaljenog metka 1640. Ubrzo nakon osvajanja Malacce, Nizozemci su dovršili portugalsko utvrđenje na Ilha das Naus (sada nazvano Crveno ostrvo).

MUAR: portugalska utvrda na Malajskom poluotoku

Portugalci su imali drugo utvrđenje na Malajskom poluostrvu. Ovo utvrđenje je bilo u Muaru i više ne postoji. Sagradila ga je Eredia na ušću rijeke Muar 1604. godine. Utvrda je bila trokutasta sa okruglim bedemima.

PACEM-PASSUMAH: portugalska utvrda na Sumatri

Pravo ime bi trebalo biti Pueek (05.09N -97.13E). Utvrda je izgrađena 1520/21. Godine i život joj je bio kratak. Gaspar Correia je pozitivan (Lendas da Índia, Tomo II, Parte II, str. 795: “ …e puserão fogo à fortalesa, que tudo foy feito em cinza: o que foy em Maio de 1524. ” Utvrda je bila kvadratnog oblika sa drvenom “tranqueira ” (palisadom) i izgrađena je u blizini morske obale.

Za informacije o Pacemu zahvaljujem Nunu Rubimu.

BIBLIOGRAFIJA:

– Fernandis, Gerard “Sačuvajte našu konferenciju o portugalskom naslijeđu 95 Malacca, Malezija ” 103 str. Gerard Fernandis, 1995, Malacca, Malezija. Vrlo zanimljiva knjiga o portugalskoj baštini i istoriji Malake.

– Irwin, G. W. “Melaka fort ” In “Melaka – Transformacija malezijskog kapitala ca. 1400-1980 ” sv. jedan Uredio Kernial Singh Sandhu, Paul Wheatley. str. 195-241. Povijest utvrde Malacca u doba Portugala i Nizozemske.

– Leupe, P.A. “Opsada i zauzimanje Malacce od Portugalaca 1640-1641 ” JMBRAS vol, 14, pt. 1 (1936) str. 1-176. Zauzeće tjesnaca Malake 1636-1639, opsada i zauzimanje Malake 1640-1641, komesar Justus Schouten izvještava o svojoj posjeti Malaki 1641.

– Noonan, L. “ Portugalci u Malacci: studija o prvom većem utjecaju Europe na istočnu Aziju ” U: “Studia ” N ° 23. travnja, str. 33-104 Centro de Estudos Históricos Ultramarinos, 1968., Lisabon, Portugal. Vrlo zanimljivo. Dolazak Portugalaca, portugalska vladavina u Malaki, uloga Malake u portugalskoj kolonijalnoj strategiji, portugalsko-azijski odnosi u Malaki, kraj portugalske vladavine.

– O ’Neill, Brian Juan “A tripla identidade dos portugueses de Malaca ” In: “Oceanos ” n ° 32 Outubro – Dezembro 1997, pp. 63-83

– Sandhu K. i Wheatley P. ” Melaka Transformacija malezijskog kapitala cca. 1400 – 1980 ″ 816 + 784 str. 2 sveske, ilustrovane u OUP -u / Institutu za studije jugoistočne Azije, 1983., Kuala Lumpur, Malezija. Cjelovita studija o gradu Malacca od početka do danas, s bibliografijom studija Melaka.

– Silva Rego, Padre António da “A Comunidade Luso-Malaia de Malaca e Singapura ” In: Actas do V Colóquio Internacional de Estudos Luso-Brasileiros, vol. I, Coimbra, 1964., str. 507-512. Također u: Silva Rego, Padre António da “Dialecto Português de Malaca e outros escritos ” 304 str. (Cadernos Ásia) CNCDP, 1998, Lisabon, Portugal.

– Silva Rego, Padre Antonio da “A Cultura Portuguesa na Malaji i Singapuri “Comunicação apresentada à reunião connenta na Academia Internacional da Cultura Portuguesa i Conselho Geral da União das Comunidades de Cultura Portuguesa : Silva Rego, Padre António da “Dialecto Português de Malaca e outros escritos ” 304 str. (Cadernos Ásia) CNCDP, 1998, Lisabon, Portugal.

– Sousa Pinto, P. J. de “Portugueses e Malaios: Malaca e os Sultanatos de Johor e Achém 1575-1619 ” 334 str. Karte, Fundação Oriente, 1997, Lisabon, Portugal. Malaca e o Estado da Índia: enquadramento económico, quadro político militar Malaca i geopolítica dos estreitos 1575-1619, Portugueses e Malaios, cidade de Malaca.

– Sousa Pinto, P. J. de “Capitães e casados: um retrato de Malaca nos finis do século XVI ” U: “Oceanos ” n ° 32 Outubro – Dezembro 1997, str. 45-60

– Sta Maria, Bernard “Moj narod, moja zemljo. Priča o portugalskoj zajednici Malacca ” 236pp. Portugalski razvojni centar Malacca, 1982., Malacca, Malezija. Skreće pažnju na ulogu laičkih grupa u očuvanju vjere, posebno tokom holandskog perioda.

– Sta Maria, Joseph “Where do we go from here” 89 pp. Joseph Sta Maria , 1991, Malacca, Malaysia.

– Subrahmanyam, Sanjay “Commerce and conflict: two views of Portuguese Melaka in the 1620s” In: Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, n° 19(1), March 1988, pp.62-79.

– Teixeira, Manuel “The Portuguese missions in Malacca and Singapore (1511-1958)” ? 3 vols. Agência Geral do Ultramar, 1961, 1963, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Thomaz, Luís Filipe Ferreira Reis “Early Portuguese Malacca” 196 pp. CTMCDP – IPM, 1998, Macau From: Thesis “Os Portugueses em Malaca: 1511-1580” Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Lisboa, 218 pp. maps 2 vols. 1964, Lisboa. This volume comprises three essays on the city of Malacca and its society during the first decades of Portuguese rule.

– Thomaz, Luis Filipe Ferreira Reis “The Indian merchant communities in Malacca under the Portuguese rule” In: Souza, T. R. de (ed., ) “Indo-Portuguese History: Old issues, new questions” Concept, New Delhi, 1985, pp.56-72.


Kingdom of Malacca - History

Malaysia's History and Background

Ancient Malaysia - Negrito aborigines are considered to be one of the first groups of people to inhabit the Malaysian peninsula. When the Proto-Malays, made up of seafarers and farmers, came to the peninsula they sent the Negritos into the jungles and hills. The Proto-Malays came from China and were technologically advanced, especially in comparison to the Negritos. After the Proto-Malays came the Deutero-Malays, which were made up of many different people - Arabs, Chinese, Indians, Proto-Malays, and Siamese. The Deutero-Malays were proficient in their use of iron and when they united with Indonesians, they combined to make up the people known today as the Malay.

Hindu Kingdom - 100 BC - 1400 AD - During this period, Malaysia's culture changed dramatically with the arrival of Indians. Indians initially went to the Malaysian peninsula in search of a mystical place known as the "Land of Gold." Although the places in Malaysia may not have been what they were looking for, they didn't leave, but continued to arrive in search of gold, spices and aromatic wood. In addition to trade (with goods), the Indians introduced Hinduism and Buddhism to the peninsula, thus bringing temples and other cultural traditions from India. As a result, local kings in Malaysia combined what they considered to be the best aspects of India's government with their own structure, thus resulting in "Indianised kingdoms." Today, the Indian influences can best be seen in a traditional Malay wedding ceremony, which is similar to those in India.

Islam and the Golden Age of Malacca - 1400 AD - 1511 AD - Chinese, Indian and Arab records show that Srivijaya to be the best trading area in the region. After seeing its great success, other areas quickly copied it thus causing a decline in Srivijava's influence. Since the Hindu kingdoms of Malaysia weren't very strong and didn't have a central power, this caused a big problem for the region. Pirates were another problem that needed to be taken care of in order for there to be a safe, secure port. This problem was taken care of with the emergence of Malacca, which was in an ideal location, thus attributing to its great success. It was founded in 1400 and within 50 years it was a major port, actually the most influential in Southeast Asia and with alliances being built with other tribes and ports, Malacca was able to "police" the waters and provide an escort for vessels that needed it. With this success, Malacca quickly became the power in control of all of Malaysia's west coast.

Colonial Malaysia - 1511 AD - 1957 AD - Malacca's power and success was quickly extinguished with the arrival of the Portuguese in 1511. Since the Arabians weren't allowing vessels piloted by non-Muslims into their harbors, the Europeans realized they needed a trading port of their own. Thus bringing about capture of Malacca and it's harbor. After conquering Malacca, the Portuguese built an immense fort which in turn was captured by the Dutch in 1641. In 1785, the British, who needed a port for their ships to dock while in route to China, persuaded the Sultan of Kedah to let them build a fort on Penang. After the French conquered the Netherlands in 1795, the Dutch allowed England to oversee the port of Malacca rather than turn it over the the French. This was the first in a series of "swaps" to and from each country regarding this area. Eventually, although it was finally given to Britain in a trade, the Dutch were the main controllers of the region. With the establishment of a port in Singapore, the British colonies (Malacca, Penang, and Singapore) came to be known as the Straits Settlements.

England's monopoly on tin mining was tremendously helped with the Pangkor Agreement in 1874. This Agreement was the result of internal fighting among the Malay kingdoms over control of the Perak throne. The commotion that ensued prompted Britain to basically force the Malay rulers into signing the peace treaty. A result of this treaty was that England had greater control, which greatly helped them in maintaining their monopoly in tin mining. Britain's control continued until the Japanese invasion in 1942, although they tried to regain control after the end of World War II in 1945. This attempt was foiled by Malaya's independence movement under the guidance of Tunku Abdul Rahman. The British flag was lowered for good in 1957 in Merdeka Square (Kuala Lumpur).

Independence to the Present: 1957- Now - Malaya's independence brought about new decisions that needed to be made, the first decision being to ascertain which territories to include in the new state. "Malaysia" was a term brought up in 1961, when Tunku persuaded Singapore, Sabak and Sarawak to combine with Malaya in a federal union. This didn't go over well with Indonesian president, Sukharno, who feared the impact of such a union on his plans to expand. He initiated several unsuccessful attacks against Malaysia.

Since Malaysia is comprised of such a diverse mix of people, another problem the country faced with independence was determining their (Malaysia's) national identity. Although the majority of the population was Malay and as such they were given permanent positions in government and other perks, the Chinese were dominate in business and trade. Since most Malaysian's were not doing well economically, the government imposed some quotas that were designed to help the Malays improve their chances economically. The Chinese didn't like this and formed a political party that won a good number of seats in the next election (1969). The Malays protested this political win by erupting into riots throughout Kuala Lumpur, which for the next couple of years put Malaysia in a state of emergency.

Malaysia has made tremendous strides in their growth and wealth. Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohammed, who has led Malaysia since 1981, is felt to be responsible for Malaysia's success.


Kingdom of Malacca - History

A History of the Malay Peninsula

Back to Sejarah Melayu

Forward to Western Conquests

In 1456, Raja Kasim assumed the throne of Melaka after the murder of his half-brother Raja Ibrahim. This was a momentous turning point in Melaka history - a real palace revolution. The son of a Sumatran princess who took a Hinduised title was murdered and replaced by his Muslim half brother, the son of a Tamil common woman. His Tamil Muslim uncle Tun Ali Sri Nara diraja was made Bendahara after the Malay Bendahara Sriwa Raja poisoned himself - either in fear that he was no longer trusted by the ruler or in anguish at the growing power of the New Guard. Raja Kasim adopted the title Sultan and called hinself Muzaffar Shah.

The small city state was now to become Sultanate and Empire. Sultan Muzaffar Shah married the daughter of the dead Bendahara Sriwa Raja, Tun Kudu. This was a shrewd move, for Tun Kudu's brother was Tun Perak - a man deeply respected by the Sultan's Malay subjects and a man he knew had the charisma, ability and courage to build his Empire. To avoid unrest and civil war, Muzaffar attempted to oust his tamil Bendahara and replace him with Tun Perak. Tun Ali had a heavy price for resignation - he wanted the Sultan's wife, Tun Kudu, in marriage. Tun Kudu made the ultimate sacrifice, divorced the Sultan and her brother was free to shape Melaka history for the next 40 years and serve as Bendahara under four Sultans.

Melaka very quickly mounted a series of military campaigns that won her Manjong, Selangor and Batu Pahat. Kampar and Indragiri in Sumatra were soon to become loyal vassals as well. Melaka's expanding power rattled its much larger and more powerful Thai neighbours, who insisted Melaka belonged to its vassal Kedah. The Thais launched massive attacks against the Malay upsturbs - won overland from its vassal State Pahang in 1445 and another by Sea in 1456. Both attacks were beaten back. n 1459, Muzaffar's son, Raja Abdullah, succeeded his father and assumed the title of Sultan Mansur Shah. He wanted to settle the Thai problem once and for all and lau nched two attacked against the two Thai States of Kedah and Pahang. Kedah fell quickly and he sent an expedition of over 200 ships against Pahang. The Governor of Pahang, Maharaja Dewa Sura was captured and his daughter taken captive to Melaka to become Mansur Shah's concubine.

It was during Mansur Shah's reign that Hang Tuah, the ultimate Malay hero and symbol of honour, courage and loyalty was made Laksamana or Admiral. Other States quickly fell in battle or become vassals - Johor and Muar in the Peninsular, Jambi, Siak and (briefly) Pasai in Sumatra. Like its Sri Vijayan predecessor, Melaka now firmly ruled much of the two coasts, guarding the vital Straits. Mansur Shah's reign was the peak of Melaka's meteoric rise to Empire and became the golden age of Malay folklore and culture. It was recorded that by this time, Melaka alone, had 40,000 inhabitants, including almost all the known races in the world.

In 1477, Mansur Shah died and his son Raja Hassan ( and a nephew of Tun Perak) became Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah. He mysteriously died in the prime of his life 11 years later, supposedly poisoned just as he was about to leave for pilgrimage to Mekah. We are now seeing a revival of the Tamil Muslim revolution - with the Temenggung Tun Mutahir, the son of the old former Bendahara Tun Ali, being the chief architect. Sultan Alauddin's elder son and the rightful heir Munawar Shah was passed over for his younger half brother, Mahmud, the son of the Temenggong's own sister. The grand old man of Melaka, Tun Perak, died in 1498, to be succeeded by his brother Tun Puteh. When he died shortly after, Tun Mutahir achieved the victory he desired and became Bendahara - the real power in Melaka. Melaka's State continued to flourish but the court was now thronged and dominated by Tamil merchants, ready to buy their way to royal favour. Thier monopoly in trade made them despised by other traders and the Malay chiefs and common people hated the arrogant and greedy "Jawi Pekan" strutting like rulers.

Then, on September 1st, 1509, a Portugese fleet under Admiral Diego Lopez De Sequeira sailed into Melaka harbour - the first European fleet to have ever dropped anchor into Malay waters. That moment was to become a dramatic crossroads in the history of the Malay Peninsular and, ultimately, the fate of all eastern Asia.


When the World Came to Southeast Asia: Malacca and the Global Economy

Situated in the west coast of the Malay Peninsula on the strait that bears its name, the port of Malacca is adjacent to one of the world’s busiest shipping lanes. Today’s Malacca (Melaka in Malay) is a small port city with few obvious signs of its former glory. Despite a growing tourist trade, most visitors are ignorant of the city’s spectacular maritime past as one of the most important trade centers in the early modern global economy, a past that put Malacca in the same league with Venice, Cairo, and Canton. The average tourist is more likely to mention the city’s food than its history. With centuries of trade with China, India, and the Arab world being ruled by the Portuguese, Dutch, and English and its close proximity to many of the world’s spice producers, Malaccan culinary culture brings together East Asian, Indian Ocean, Halal, and European traditions into a Southeast Asian celebration of global food. But tasty as they are, these dishes are artifacts of the city’s lost prominence. Fortunately, city leaders have funded several museums, restoration projects, and archeological sites to celebrate this Malaysian port’s role in the world system, its dynamic multiculturalism, and significance in maritime Asian history.

Despite the port’s tremendous importance and wealth in the fifteenth century, Malacca’s greatness was fleeting. After 1403, a Malay ruler rapidly transformed it from a sleepy fishing village to a center of world trade in less than a decade, but in 1511, the dynamic trade emporium fell to Portuguese invaders who gradually ran Malacca into the ground until they were conquered in turn by the Dutch in 1641. If it became a backwater under colonial rule, a larger historical perspective on Southeast Asia shows that there has always been a hegemonic port city similar to Malacca in its glory days. Geography, meteorological patterns, and the logistics of maritime commerce dictated that somewhere along the Straits of Malacca, one city would serve as the regional center in the global economic order.

Land, Water, and Wind

French historian Fernand Braudel argued that geography and climate structured the decisions humans could make, placing human agency inside of certain environmental constraints. Although he studied the Mediterranean, his perspective is essential for understanding the history of maritime Asia. A check of the map reveals Malacca’s importance. The land literally creates a funnel, as the Malay Peninsula and the island of Sumatra get steadily closer as one travels into the strait. Tomé Pires, a Portuguese apothecary, referred to the strait as a “gullet,” and contemporary analysts use the term “choke point.”1

The Straits of Malacca connect the Indian Ocean basin to the South China Sea. China- bound maritime trade from India, Persia, and the Arabian Peninsula must either pass by Malacca or travel much farther to the south to the Sunda Strait between Sumatra and Java. While the Sunda passage is appropriate for ships coming from the Cape of Good Hope, it is a major detour for Indian, Persian, and Arab merchants. Furthermore, the winds along the west coast of Sumatra can be unreliable, and the open ocean swells spawned by massive storms in the Southern Ocean provide for excellent surfing in the Mentawai Islands but dangerous sailing for small craft. The placid waters between the northeast coast of Sumatra and the west coast of the Malay Peninsula are well-protected from ocean swells and can seem like a lake when compared to the towering waves of the Indian Ocean.

The monsoon wind cycle adds a final and historically decisive factor to the history of global trade patterns. In the Northern Hemisphere’s summer months, a high-pressure system over .Siberia pulls wet and warm air off the Indian Ocean, bringing heavy rain and dominant winds that blow toward the northeast. In winter, the pattern is reversed, with Siberian low pressure pushing relatively cooler and dry air to the southwest. In the age of sail, it was next to impossible for boats to travel against these winds. Mariners sailed downwind from India or China toward the southern edge of the Straits of Malacca from November to April. From May to October, they used the monsoon winds to push boats northward to India or China. This wind pattern combined with Malacca’s geographic location to make it an ideal place to await the change of the wind cycle. As merchants going from South Asia to China realized that it was easier and quicker to simply exchange goods with each other at a halfway point in the straits, ports in the region developed into trade emporia where goods from afar could be imported, stored, and exchanged amongst foreign merchants. Such a system allowed Indians and Chinese to bring goods from home, exchange them for foreign goods, and return home in close to six months, rather than the almost two years it would take to travel the full distance.

The Braudelian factors of geography, ocean patterns, and wind cycles made the Straits of Malacca a natural pivot point of commerce in maritime Asia.

Pre-Malaccan Thalassocracies

Before Malacca, there were two great thalassocracies, or sea-going empires: Srivijaya (eighth through twelfth centuries) and Majapahit (1293–1527). Initially, the kingdom of Funan (first through seventh centuries), in what is now Southern Việt Nam, Cambodia, and Thailand, established maritime trade connections between India and China, with the city of Oc-Eo serving as the main port. However, with the Straits of Malacca home to various pirate bands, merchants in the age of Funan used the overland route at the narrow Isthmus of Kra near the present- day Thai-Malaysian border.

In the seventh century, Srivijaya opened up the Straits of Malacca. Using naval power to crush pirates and rivals, the kingdom grew from the region around present-day Palembang in South Sumatra Province in Indonesia to claim control over most of Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, much of Java, and thousands of smaller islands. For centuries, Srivijaya expanded the volume of trade through the straits as it led military expeditions against potential rivals while ensuring foreign merchants safe passage and necessary port facilities. After half a millennium of power, the maritime empire fell to the rising Javanese Majapahit kingdom. Another sea-going empire, Majapahit controlled an even larger amount of territory at its imperial zenith in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The Javanese combined access to the spice islands of the Moluccas with domination of the Straits of Malacca.

These thalassocracies set the example of incredible wealth that would come from servicing the maritime Silk Roads between China and the Indian Ocean basin. Sea-going trade proved itself to be a much more cost-effective and faster option than Central Asia’s thousands of miles of unreliable roads, slowly crossed by camel caravans at a walking pace.

The Rise of Malacca

Following these precedents, the rise of Malacca was simply the newest phase of a centuries-old pattern. While specific details on the founding of the city remain murky and often the stuff of legend, we do know that prior to 1400, Malacca was a small fishing village. Malay, Portuguese, and Chinese sources hold that the displaced Malay nobleman Parameswara (1344–1414) was in search of a kingdom. Finding a small river that met a beach in the protected waters of strait— all at the foot of a nearby hill that allowed one to observe the coming and going of ships— Parameswara must have realized that the site would make an ideal port that could both service trade and project military power. Accordingly, he forged an alliance with the nomadic orang laut (known as “sea people,” they were literally a floating population of pirates and merchants) to crush his rivals, scare off other pirates, and encourage merchants into his harbor. If he strongarmed some ships into his port, once there they found reliable trading practices and security in a dangerous area.

Malacca’s just and uniform trade practices quickly gained notoriety throughout maritime Asia. Under the watchful but protective eyes of the fierce orang laut, merchants who came into Malacca found that the city offered safe and secure warehouse facilities. Ensuring smooth transactions, Parameswara established a system with clear rules on the percentage of incoming cargo that would be taxed. Avoiding opportunities for graft and petty corruption, the local government had a hierarchy of officials with four harbormasters, each for an ethnically defined group of merchants such as Gujarati, Bengali, Malay, or East Asian. An executive officer stood above them all to arbitrate interethnic disputes and ensure harmonious multicultural commerce. Serving as a marketplace for imports to be traded amongst foreigners, the city produced and consumed relatively little.

Within a few years, the successful system made Malacca the most important trading center in Southeast Asia. With this prosperity, the young city grew. Merchants, laborers, and slaves from throughout Southeast Asia, East Asia, and South Asia soon filled Malacca. Cultural diversity became the norm, and one could hear dozens of languages spoken in the cosmopolitan city’s bustling streets.

Tribute State and Sultanate

Parameswara solidified Malacca’s position with institutional and personal connections to the great economic engines of his world, China and India. The city’s rise coincided with one of the most dynamic phases in Chinese history as the early Ming dynasty (1364–1644) deployed a massive fleet and established direct relations with the Asia maritime world. The Yongle Emperor (1402–1424) tasked Zheng He (1371– 1433) with building and commanding hundreds of ships, some estimated to be over 400 feet in length. Not a mission of conquest or exploration, the fleet followed the well-known monsoon trade routes to promote trade and diplomacy by impressing the world with China’s might. Maritime powers were encouraged to enter into the Confucian-based tribute-state relationship with the Middle Kingdom. Parameswara himself traveled to the Chinese capital to kowtow before the emperor in 1411. In return for his tribute and respect, the Malaccan ruler received honorary robes from the Chinese court, a symbol of prestige, and, more practically, assurances of Chinese military assistance should it be needed. Furthermore, the Chinese court granted the city what we might call most-favored-nation status. If the sinitic tribute state system ensured the city’s standing to the east, religion solidified Malacca’s economic relationship toward the west.

While it is unclear if Parameswara converted to Islam, he adopted titles associated with the faith (the Persian Iskandar Shah and the Arabic Sultan) and intermarried with Muslim royal families. This is not surprising, as increasing numbers of Indian, Persian, and Arab merchants began to arrive in Aceh on the northern tip of Sumatra and the Straits of Malacca. By midcentury, the city’s leadership converted, and a sultan made the Hajj pilgrimage, placing Malacca in the wider Islamic trade network that dominated the greater Indian Ocean basin. Muslims from South Asia, Arabia, or North Africa knew that they would be able to find places of worship, individuals familiar with Arabic, and communities governed by familiar trade practices and influenced by Islamic law codes.

These relationships strengthened Malacca’s foreign relations and its domestic dynamism. As a tribute state, the city became familiar to Chinese who soon began to reside in the port. Muslim merchants from thousands of miles away settled in the city, adding to its ethnic diversity. By the close of the fifteenth century, Malacca was one of the world’s most important cities for trade and home to a cosmopolitan community of over 100,000. Arabs prayed with Chinese. Armenians traded with Javanese. Indians and Japanese saw each other in the street.

The Portuguese Crusade

Historians often mark Columbus’s 1492 voyage across the Atlantic as the dawn of the modern era. This perspective, with its emphasis on the Iberian construction of global connections, can obscure the fact that the original goal of Spanish expansion was not the unknown New World but rather the markets of East and Southeast Asia. The Portuguese were more immediately successful in this quest. After the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, in which Portugal and Spain agreed to divide the world into two spheres of expansion, the smaller kingdom sent Vasco da Gama to India to build a trade empire on the far side of the world. Unfortunately, the Portuguese had little to sell in Asia and quickly turned to more violent means of acquiring the spices, silks, and other riches of Indian Ocean ports. Alfonso de Albuquerque (1453-1515), a brilliantly ruthless strategist was the main architect of Portuguese Asian policy. Recognizing the relative weakness of his small armed forces on land, he exploited his fleet’s naval superiority by attacking strategic waterways such as the Strait of Hormuz (1507) and ports such as Goa (1510). His ships, bristling with guns and sailors trained in the ways of armed trade in the less-than-peaceful Mediterranean, highjacked Asia’s maritime economy. Realizing that control of Malacca would give him a near-monopoly of Chinese goods and spices from the Moluccas, Albuquerque attacked the city in 1511. After several fierce battles with the sultan’s skilled archers and powerful war elephants, the Portuguese conquered the port.

While Albuquerque’s aim was to monopolize Asian trade by taking this crucial choke point, his motivations must be understood in the context of early modern Europe. Coming out of the Crusades and feudalism, Islamophobia and the warrior culture were central to the Portuguese worldview. But this conquistador also understood global patterns of trade and realized that if he seized Malacca, Portugal would gain an upper hand on a European commercial rival: the city of Venice. Since the Venetians made tremendous profits selling eastern goods to the Iberians and as the merchant republic got along a little too well with their Muslim colleagues, a move in Southeast Asia would solve a Mediterranean political crisis. Albuquerque justified his assault on the port in a speech to his men:

And I hold it as very certain that if we take this trade of Malacca away of their hands, Cairo and Méca are entirely ruined, and to Venice will no spiceries be conveyed except that which her merchants go and buy in Portugal.2

Clearly, the commander saw the world as a sophisticated trading system but also as a bitter clash of civilizations between Islam and Christianity. The merchants of Venice immediately understood the threat to their centuries-old trade with the East, which indeed went into an immediate and irreversible decline. The Catholic invaders viewed Southeast Asian Muslims with the same hostility and contempt displayed in Iberia, killing or expelling them from the city. Mosques were torn down and churches raised in their place. The subsequent century saw almost constant warfare between Portuguese Malacca and the neighboring Sultanates of Johore and Aceh. When compared with the Spanish Americas and Philippines, Portuguese missionary activity was spectacularly unsuccessful in Asia, and ironically, anti-Muslim policies may have sped up conversions to Islam as a means of resisting the Iberian invaders. Visiting priests, such as the Jesuit missionary St. Francis Xavier, disparaged the city’s lack of piety and reputation for sin.

After a century of growth, Malacca went into a period of demographic instability. As many ethnic Malay Muslims and orang laut fled with the sultan and only a handful of ethnic Portuguese arrived in the city, the new rulers encouraged the migration of mixed-race Catholic converts from India. Others made it to Malacca from Portuguese colonies in Brazil, Africa, East Timor, and Macau. While Catholics remained a minority, the city’s Hindu and Buddhist communities grew as Indian and Chinese merchants took up residence. As before, the new arrivals brought new food and increased the city’s ethnic diversity.

Under the 130 years of Portuguese rule, trade declined. Muslim merchants found rival ports, and Protestant Europeans soon posed a serious threat. Increasingly, Portuguese Malacca survived only as a military outpost in a sea of enemies.

Stagnation and Displacement under the Dutch and British

When the Dutch arrived in Southeast Asia, they brought a new form of economic organization: the modern corporation. After its creation in 1602, the Dutch East India Company (VOC), with its system of buying and selling shares in the company, diversified risk for its many investors after its creation in 1602. The Iberian feudal elites and their merchant allies could not compete with the forces of early modern capitalism. The VOC’s Batavia, modern-day Jakarta, quickly took over the spice trade, redirecting commerce away from the Straits of Malacca and toward the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. When the Dutch replaced the Portuguese as masters of the city in 1641, the new Protestant rulers held the port only to keep it out of the hands of their rivals. The few Dutch who immigrated to Malacca did build distinctive buildings for VOC officials and merchants.

In the early nineteenth century, the British East India Company took an interest in the Straits of Malacca. English ships loaded with opium from India passed through Southeast Asia on their way to Canton. In order to secure this crucial waterway, the British negotiated control of Malacca by the 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty. However, Thomas Stamford Raffles (1781–1826) established Singapore as the center of English operations in the region and Malacca remained a backwater. When the naturalist Russel Alfred Wallace (1823–1913) visited in the 1850s, he wrote the following:

The population of Malacca consists of several races. The ubiquitous Chinese are perhaps the most numerous, keeping up their manners, customs, and language the indigenous Malays are next in point of numbers, and their language is the lingua-franca of the place. Next come the descendants of the Portuguese—a mixed, degraded, and degenerate race, but who still keep up the use of their mother tongue, though ruefully mutilated in grammar and then there are the English rulers, and the descendants of the Dutch, who all speak English.3

While neglected by the authorities, the port’s vibrant multiculturalism continued to flourish. Under British rule, the Chinese population grew as part of the larger Peranakan Chinese community. As with the Portuguese and Dutch, many Chinese men took Malay, Javanese, and Balinese brides and concubines, producing a hybrid culture. Malacca’s Baba-Nyonya cuisine combines southern Chinese dishes with spices and cooking techniques of Southeast Asia.

Contemporary Malacca

A number of factors combined to marginalize the once-great port city. In the twentieth century, Malacca’s harbor served regional ships picking up tin and rubber from nearby mines and plantations. Yet this commerce was fairly small-scale, and the city became a backwater, eclipsed by Singapore to the south and Georgetown to the north. The British chose landlocked Kuala Lumpur as the political center of the colonial Federated Malay States. While the nationalist leader Tunku Abdul Rahman (1903–1990) did famously utter “Merdeka” (“freedom”) in Malacca in 1956 and drew upon the city’s historical legacy in his speeches, the following year he declared independence in Kuala Lumpur. With rising Malay nationalism, Malacca’s diversity raised some eyebrows in regards to the city’s authenticity.

However, a new wind is blowing into Malacca. In recognition of its important role in maritime history and diverse culture, the city became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2008. Tourists can see the colonial past in ruins of the Portuguese A Famosa Fort (1511) or the Dutch Stadthuys (1650). The hungry can sample local specialties in Baba Nyonya restaurants on Jonker Street. A number of museums represent the port’s past as a center of Malay culture but also the meeting place of the Chinese and Islamic worlds, best seen in the exhibits and statues that celebrate Zheng He. For today’s visitor, history in Malacca is alive and well.


Dutch Malacca 1641-1795, 1818-1825

On 14 January 1641 the Dutch took possession from the Portuguese of the fortress of Malacca with the help of their ally the Sultan of Johore. The Dutch had treaties with the Johore Sultans to get rid of the Portuguese. The Malays were confident of a victory with the help of the Dutch, thus regaining the Malacca throne. But this was not the Dutch aim.

After the capture the Dutch set up a government. Malacca was too important for the VOC strategies, as the city was situated on the main trade route to the Far East (Spices islands, China and Japan) and was a formidable strategic outpost. A short time after the conquest of Malacca the Dutch made trading agreements with several states of the Malay Peninsula to obtain tin (Kedah 1642, Ujung Salang 1643, Bangkeri 1645, Perak). For this reason a Dutch outpost was established in Perak, but in 1651 the garrison was killed and the outpost destroyed by the Malays. In 1660 even the factory established at Ujung Salang was abandoned.

In the 1650s a great imposing building, the Stadthuys, is built by the Dutch as the administrative centre and home of the Governor of Malacca. By the 1660s the trade in Dutch Malacca was in decline and the relations with the Malay states had deteriorated as well. The Dutch had a factory at Bengkalis (1670s) at the mouth of the Siak river (Sumatra). From here they controlled the tin trade.

The trade at Siak was vital for Malacca and for the Malacca Freeburghers community, a community of Dutch and Portuguese descendants intermarried with the local people. The duty collected of their Siak trade was an important share of Malacca’s revenue.

Perak was the main tin producing kingdom on the whole peninsula and the VOC was interested in controlling its trade. For this reason a Dutch outpost was established from 1670 to 1690 at Teluk Gedung on pulau Pangkor. This fort was reoccupied by the Dutch in 1746 and later the same year the fort was moved upstream to Tanjung Putus.

Malacca trade quickly declined after the Dutch conquest. In fact the city’s prosperity was supported by free trade. However, to the contrary, the VOC wanted the monopoly for all goods. Malacca’s decline was also due to the fact that, while under the Portuguese rule the city was only behind Goa the main Portuguese base in the east. Under the Dutch Batavia was the main Eastern base of the VOC and the company had no interest in developing Malacca’s trade to the detriment of that of Batavia. The Sultanate of Johore (the Dutch ally during the siege of Portuguese Malacca) took advantage of all this by opening his seaport of Riau (an Indonesian island near Singapore) to all ships and to all types of commerce.

In the 1700s Johore was a powerful force on the Straits. The trade of Riau (the seaport for the Johore Sultanate) had far surpassed that of Malacca. The VOC maintained the alliance with Johore despite the discontent of Malacca. The strength of Johore was seen as a safeguard to the peaceful trade on the Straits. In those years it was rumored that the Dutch might leave the city. The only importance of Malacca for the Dutch was that it was situated on a very strategic point and they did not want Malacca to fall into the hands of any other European power this is why the Dutch remained. During the period of Dutch rule Malacca had a garrison of usually less than 550 Dutchmen.

Map of the Malay Peninsula. Author and Copyright Marco Ramerini

In 1710 St. Peter’s Church is built. It is still the oldest functioning Christian church in Malaysia. In the 1720s a new power appeared on the scene: the Bugis. They were and are the main ethnic group of the south-western coastal region of Sulawesi (Celebes). After the Dutch conquest of the Sultanate of Makassar several groups of Bugis emigrated from Makassar (Sulawesi) and settled near Malacca in the 1710s. In 1722 the Bugis captured the port of Riau and the whole Kingdom of Johore. The Bugis developed not only the port of Riau but also that of Selangor (north of Malacca). In 1710 the St. Peter’s Church is built. It is the oldest still functioning Christian church in Malaysia. In 1722 the Bugis captured the port of Riau and the whole Kingdom of Johore. The Bugis developed not only the port of Riau but also that of Selangor (north of Malacca).

In 1746 the Sultan of Johore gave the Siak Kingdom to the VOC as a gift. The same year agreements were concluded with the peninsular Kingdoms of Nanning, Rembau and Perak. In Perak the Dutch fort was reoccupied. With these agreements the prosperity of Malacca was improved. However, the Bugis were a constant threat to the Dutch. Their leader Daeng Kamboja made Linggi his base and from October 1756 till July 1757 besieged Dutch Malacca. In February 1757 reinforcements arrived from Batavia and the Bugis were forced to drop the siege. In that year the Dutch built a fort on the Linggi River and named it Philippe (today’s Kota Linggi) after the daughter of the Dutch Governor Jacob Mussel (Governor of Batavia from 1750 to 1761). Tin that was transported from Linggi, Rembau and Kelang Selan. The purpose of the fort was to collect taxes from the tin that was transported from Linggi, Rembau and Kelang Selangor. On the 1st of January 1758 this fort was the site where the treaty between the Bugis and the Dutch was signed. This treaty enabled the Dutch to impose their control on this area: Linggi and Rembau were ceded to the VOC. In 1758 on Pulau Gontong at the mouth of Siak river the Dutch built a fort to control the tin trade, but later in 1765 the fort was abandoned, the good relations between Siak and the VOC no longer needing such a defence facility. In 1759 the fort of Linggi was also abandoned. Between 1753 and 1760 the Christ Church in Malacca was built. Malacca trade was flourishing, but a new sea power appeared on the scene: the British. From the 1750s they traded tin with Riau and in 1781 they occupied the Dutch outpost Perak. Then in 1786 a British base was established in Penang.

To prevent a British occupation the Dutch attacked Riau and on 29 October 1784 the Bugis were defeated. The resulting treaty ended Johore’s independence and a Dutch fort was established at Tanjung Pinang (Riau). On the Malay Peninsula Johore, Selangore, Perak, Trengganu and Pahang became Dutch territories. The VOC was truly dominant in the Straits. During the Napoleonic wars the Dutch Governor surrendered Malacca to the British East India Company in August 1795. During their rule the British demolished the fortress of Malacca. In 1818 after the Napoleonic Wars Malacca is restored by the British to the Dutch under the Treaty of Vienna. In 1824 the Anglo-Dutch Treaty or the Treaty of London was signed between the Dutch and the British. The British give Bencoolen on Sumatra to the Dutch and Malacca was given to the British. On 9 April 1825 the Dutch ceded Malacca.

BIBLIOGRAFIJA:

– Andaya, Barbarba Watson “Melaka under the Dutch 1641-1795”, in: “Melaka – The Transformation of a Malay Capital ca. 1400-1980”, Vol. one, edited by Kernial Singh Sandhu, Paul Wheatley, pp. 195-241.

– Andaya, Leonard Yuzon “The Kingdom of Johore 1641-1728: a study of economic and political developments on the Straits of Malacca” 458 pp. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, Cornell University, 1971

– Arasaratnam, S. “Dutch commercial policy and interests in the Malay peninsula, 1750-1795” In: “An Expanding World” Vol. n° 10 Prakash, Om “European commercial expansion in early modern Asia” pp. 177-207 Also in: “The age of partnership, Europeans in Asia before dominion” Honolulu, 1979, pp. 159-189

– Harrison, Brian ” Holding the Fort: Melaka Under Two Flags, 1795-1845″ xiv, 148pp. with illustrated plates and maps, The Malaysian branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1985, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

– Hayes Hoyt, Sarnia “Old Malacca” xii, 84 pages, 16 pp. colour plates Oxford Paperbacks, 1997, Singapore. A pocket history to the oldest of the cosmopolitan entrepôt city states in Malaysia, includes a series of illustrations from colonial times to the present.

– Irwin, G. W. “Melaka fort”, in: “Melaka – The Transformation of a Malay Capital c. 1400-1980” Vol. one Edited by Kernial Singh Sandhu, Paul Wheatley. str. 195-241. several maps The history of the fort of Malacca during the Portuguese and Dutch time. A detailed historical research.

– Ketelaars, Toine “Living apart together – Ethnic Diversity in Dutch Malacca 1640-1690” pp. 20 A very interesting paper with various information on the numerical and ethnical composition of Dutch Malacca.

– Leupe, P.A. “The siege and capture of Malacca from the Portuguese in 1640-1641” JMBRAS vol, 14, pt. 1 (1936) pp 1-176. Index: The occupation of the Straits of Malacca 1636-1639, the siege and the capture of Malacca 1640-1641, commissary Justus Schouten’s report of his visit to Malacca 1641.

– Lewis, Dianne “Jan compagnie in the Straits of Malacca 1641-1795” 176 pp. map, Ohio University Center for International Studies, 1995, Athens, Ohio, USA. A good book on Malacca/Dutch history. Index: The Dutch conquest and its aftermath, the crisis with Johor 1700-1718, the Dutch company and the Bugis opting for neutrality, Dutch alliance with Malays, neutrality revisited, neutrality abandoned: the Dutch capture of Riau, the VOC’s “forward movement” in the Straits of Malacca.

– Smith, W. H. “The Portuguese in Malacca during the Dutch period” in: STUDIA N° 7 pp. 87-106, 1961, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Sta Maria, Joseph “Undi nos by di aki? Where do we go from here ? Portuguese land title dilemma” vi+89 pp. Sakti Bersatu Enterprises, 1994, Melaka, Malaysia.


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