Vijetnamska web stranica

Vijetnamska web stranica


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Ovaj odjeljak web stranice omogućuje vam intervjuiranje ljudi koji su bili uključeni u Vijetnamski rat. Pročitajte biografije i pronađite ljude s kojima biste htjeli razgovarati za svoj projekt. Pošaljite svoja pitanja pomoću e -pošte na kraju svake biografije.

Intervjui

Narednik Paul Mahar: Rođen sam 24. juna 1947. u Ženevi, York. Ja sam presađeno gradsko dijete. Odrastao sam u New Yorku i New Jerseyju. Sada živim u sjevernom Idahu, a od 1979. godine.

U više od trideset godina rada imao sam mnogo različitih zanimanja. Radio sam sa mašinama za brizganje plastike i mašinama za obradu drveta. Bio sam i predškolski učitelj prije mnogo godina, u čemu sam zaista uživao.

Služio sam u Vijetnamu od novembra 1966. do decembra 1967. u četama Alpha i Delta drugog bataljona, dvadeset i sedme pješadije (Wolfhounds) 25. divizije. Bio sam stacioniran u Cu Chi -u, dvadesetak milja sjeverno od Saigona ili onoga što je danas poznato kao Ho Chi Minh City.

Bio sam predstavljen u People Magazine (21. marta 1994.) i intervjuirao ga je Tom Brokaw za 'Now With Tom Brokaw' u avgustu iste godine. Postigao sam "15 minuta slave" jer sam služio u Vijetnamu na mjestu drugog čovjeka bez koristi od vojne obuke. (Članak časopisa People možete pronaći u odjeljku Pathfinder časopisa People na Internetu.) Bio sam borbeni veteran tokom cijele službe u Vijetnamu. Ušao sam u više od dvadeset tunela, dovoljno sretan da nikada nisam sreo ništa živo osim piletine koja me je, blago rečeno, skoro prestrašila.

Izgubio sam dobre prijatelje u Vijetnamu, o mnogima o kojima i danas razmišljam, na Vijetnamski rat gledam kao na plemenitu stvar koja nije uspjela iz mnogo razloga - jedan je politička klima - mnogi su mislili da SAD nemaju posla u Vijetnamu , čime se negira volja za postizanjem ciljeva koji nikada nisu bili do kraja definirani. Amerikancima je kod kuće bilo teško podržati stvar kada su sinovi i kćeri došli kući "s invaliditetom", a da nisu razumjeli zašto smo uopće tamo. Sjedinjene Američke Države bile su u velikim unutrašnjim previranjima krajem šezdesetih i početkom sedamdesetih. Došao sam do čina narednika (E-5) u Vijetnamu i ponosan sam na svoju službu. E -pošta [email protected]

Major Nick Romaine: Rođen sam u Los Angelesu u Kaliforniji 1940. godine. U vojsku Sjedinjenih Država prijavio sam se sa 19 godina. Nakon četiri godine prijavio sam se i primljen u školu za oficire. Nakon završene obuke, dobio sam čin potporučnika u pješadiji i raspoređen sam u 4. pješadijsku diviziju u Fort Lewisu u Washingtonu. Obavljao sam brojne dužnosti kao oficir pješadije. Kad sam bio stariji poručnik, komandovao sam pješadijskom četom. Kad smo 1966. napustili Sjedinjene Države, na brodu, imali smo 185 vojnika raspoređenih u moju četu. Bilo je 33 mojih ljudi koji su ubijeni u Vijetnamu do kraja naše godine, a svi osim jednog su ranjeni barem jednom. Svi komandiri četa često su se mijenjali kako bi svi imali priliku biti komandir u borbi. Kad sam napustio svoju četu, mogao sam nastaviti služiti sa svojim bataljonom, gdje su mi primarne dužnosti bile koordinirati i zahtijevati zračne napade lovačkih aviona visokih performansi i bombardovanje bombardera B-52 i brojnih drugih vrsta aviona. Većina vojnika koji su bili u mojoj četi je regrutirano. Pošto smo zajedno trenirali i zajedno raspoređeni, imali smo vrlo dobru jedinicu. Dobro smo se poznavali što je bio plus kada smo ušli u bitku. Loša stvar u ovome je što smo izgubili malo sebe kad je jedan od naših poginuo. Kao da nam je iščupan komadić srca. Mi koji smo se vratili patimo od stanja zvanog PTSP (posttraumatski stresni poremećaj). Većina nas se vratila u Sjedinjene Države u različito vrijeme, zbog ranjavanja, a kad smo pušteni iz bolnice i otpušteni iz vojske, raštrkali smo se na četiri vjetra. Od tada pokušavamo da se lociramo i sada nas 72 imamo u kontaktu. Inače, naš prvi narednik odlikovan je Medaljom časti. Naše najviše priznanje za hrabrost.

Vratio sam se u Sjedinjene Države 1967. godine i predavao pješadijske predmete u Vojno -obavještajnoj školi. Godine 1970. vratio sam se u Vijetnam gdje sam dodijeljen kao viši savjetnik bataljona vijetnamskom bataljonu rendžera (vojni rendžeri su nešto poput Commandosa). Ja i moj narednik bili smo jedini Amerikanci u ovoj jedinici. Moj narednik je ubijen tokom jedne operacije i prošlo je otprilike šest sedmica prije nego što mi je poslana zamjena. Nisam vidio drugog Amerikanca cijelo vrijeme, iako sam razgovarao s njima na radiju. Često smo bili u kontaktu s neprijateljem i bila je to vrlo stresna godina. Mogao sam fizički preživjeti i vratio se kući i izašao iz vojske nakon četrnaest godina službe. Završio sam još devet godina u rezervi i sada sam u penziji. E -pošta [email protected]_aol.com

Podoficir Joseph T. Miller: Rođen sam u Chicagu, Illinois, 22. decembra 1942. Odrastao je u radničkoj porodici i odrastao kao katolik. Nakon što je 1960. završio srednju školu, Joe je neko vrijeme radio u skladištu sve dok se u travnju 1961. nije odlučio prijaviti u američku mornaricu, nedugo nakon svog osamnaestog rođendana.

Tokom osnovne obuke u pomorskom centru za obuku Velikih jezera od aprila do juna 1961. godine, Joe je izabran za rad u obavještajnom području. Na kraju je poslan da uči kineski-mandarinski u Montereyu u Kaliforniji, kurs koji je završio u maju 1963. Do tada je Joe napredovao do E-4, podoficirske treće klase. Joe je bio upućen u Odjel pomorske sigurnosne grupe nedaleko od Taipeija na Tajvanu, gdje su mu dodijeljene dužnosti analize prometa za Agenciju za nacionalnu sigurnost.

Dok je bio na Tajvanu, Joe je upoznao i zaljubio se u jednu Tajvankinju. To nije bilo prihvatljivo za onoga ko je nosio sigurnosnu provjeru "Top Secret Crypto", pa je Joe uklonjen iz obavještajnog rada zbog "sigurnosnog rizika" i poslan na brod nosača aviona USS Ticonderoga u junu 1964. Dok je bio postavljen na brod Ticonderoga , dogodili su se "incidenti" u Tonkinskom zaljevu (31. jula-5. avgusta 1964.).

Budući da je Joe poznavao neke od obavještajnih radnika koji su privremeno raspoređeni u USS Maddox u sklopu ove špijunske operacije protiv sjevernog Vijetnama, bio je zaprepašten kada je predsjednik američkom narodu rekao laž da je Maddox u "rutinskoj patroli" u " međunarodne vode. " Ovo je započelo Joeovo okretanje protiv američkog rata u Vijetnamu.

Joejevi antiratni stavovi povećali su se tijekom njegove preostale četiri godine u američkoj mornarici, pa je do trenutka kad je otpušten u veljači 1968. (kao E-5, podoficir druge klase), bio odlučan aktivno se uključiti u protestni pokret protiv rata. Joe se pridružio Vijetnamskim veteranima protiv rata (VVAW) 1970., a prije toga je bio dio drugih antiratnih organizacija. Joe je i dalje član VVAW-a, a trenutno služi kao jedan od četiri nacionalna koordinatora te organizacije.

Miller je diplomirao političke nauke, magistrirao azijske nauke i doktorirao političke nauke, a sve to stekao je nakon što je napustio službu. Trenutno služi kao dodiplomski akademski savjetnik za sve smjerove političkih nauka na Univerzitetu u Illinoisu, a predaje tečajeve iz političke teorije, međunarodnih odnosa, američke vlade i kurs o politici Vijetnamskog rata. E -pošta [email protected]

T/Sgt. Dan Decker: Pridružio sam se Vazduhoplovnim snagama u oktobru 1966., na osnovnoj školi u Lackland AFB, TX, tehničkoj školi kao stručnjak za inercijalne navigacione sisteme u Keesler AFB, gospođica. Moje prvo operativno zaduženje bilo je u Seymour Johnson AFB, NC, sa 4. taktičkim borcem na lovačke bombardere F-4D. U siječnju 1968. poslani smo TDY u Kunsan AB, Koreja, kao odgovor na zauzimanje USS Pueblo. Nakon šest mjeseci dosadnih rupa na korejskom nebu i zveckanja američkim sabljama, četvrti se vratio kući, rasterećen odjećom Nacionalne garde iz Floride koja je upravljala avionima F-100.

U januaru 1970. premješten sam u Udorn RTAFB, Tajland, sa 432. Taktičko izviđačkim krilom. 432. letela je RF-4C 11. i 14. taktičko-izviđačke eskadrile, F-4D 13. i 555. taktičke lovačke eskadrile i C-130E 7. sedmičke eskadrile komande i upravljanja. Baze na Tajlandu godinama su držane u tajnosti od strane naše vlade na zahtjev tajlandske vlade i zato što nismo trebali biti tamo prema ugovoru, ali su konačno priznate kasnije u ratu. U mojim naređenjima je pisalo da idem u strogo povjerljivo; Nisam imao pojma gdje je to. Naša vlada nikada nije priznala postojanje baza u Laosu i Kambodži, ali su postojale i značajno su doprinijele da broj imena na Zidu ostane samo 58.000.

Zapanjujuća karakteristika veterana Vijetnamskog rata koji nisu služili u zemlji je osjećaj krivice i neadekvatnosti. Član sam Thailand-Laos-Cambodia Brotherhood, organizacije vijetnamskih veterana. Zajedno smo shvatili važnost naše usluge na Tajlandu i u drugim zemljama Indokine. Naše misije protiv staze Ho Chi Minh spasile su nebrojene hiljade američkih života u južnom Vijetnamu. Pokušaj repatrijacije naših ratnih zarobljenika u Son Tayu pokrenut je iz moje baze dok sam bio tamo. Let je nekim čudom postao još prometniji nego inače i držao je još više aviona tokom racije. Ja sam u to vrijeme radio na brifingu o održavanju i mogao sam razgovarati sa svim pilotima po povratku.

Ostao sam u zračnim snagama nakon Vijetnama sve do konačne penzije 1986. Radio sam na velikom broju aviona, uključujući F (RF) -4C/D/E, C-130s, KC-135A/R, B-52G/ H, B-1B, A-10A, CH (HH) -53C/E i drugi. Bila je to uzbudljiva i vrlo nagrađivana karijera. Nakon što sam se penzionisao kao tehničar, vratio sam se na fakultet i diplomirao na kompozitnim društvenim studijama 1989. godine, a magistrirao na historiji 1996. Predavao sam srednje škole u Teksasu 15 godina, otišao sam u penziju učiteljica škole, a sada predajem na fakultetima u američkoj vladi i vladi Teksasa za Austin Community College u Fredericksburgu u Teksasu. E -pošta [email protected]

Narednik Robert Wheatley: Rođen sam u Indianapolisu, Indiana, 12. marta 1946. Bio sam jedan od onih koji se nazivaju "Baby Boomer". Moj otac je, kao i mnogi drugi mladići njegovih godina, otišao u borbu u Drugom svjetskom ratu. Rođen sam u godinama nakon njegovog povratka nakon pobjede u ratu - zajedno s milionima drugih rođenih u poslijeratnom baby boom -u. Tata je bio stacioniran u Engleskoj sa 8. vazduhoplovstvom kao mitraljezac na bombarderu B-24. Uvijek sam osjećao veliki ponos što je služio u tom ratu i uvijek sam znao, kad i ako dođe moje vrijeme, poći ću njegovim stopama. Nisam bio "Gung Ho" u vezi toga. Zapravo, nadao sam se da to vrijeme nikada neće doći. Ali jeste, bila mi je dužnost kao čovjeka i kao Amerikanca da odradim zadatak.

Tek što sam 1964. završio srednju školu, moje vrijeme je zaista stiglo. Diplomirao sam u maju te godine i zaposlio se u restoranu brze hrane. Samo sam obilježavao vrijeme, sve dok nisam odlučio gdje želim ići sa svojim životom. Prijavila sam se i primljena sam na Univerzitet Butler u Indianapolisu, ali nisam bila spremna da odmah upišem fakultet, ne znajući koje polje želim da upišem. Otprilike u to vrijeme, nagomilavanje trupa u Vijetnamu počelo se ubrzano povećavati. Amerika se posvetila nečemu mnogo većem od samo savjetodavne uloge u Vijetnamu - mi smo se obavezali poslati stotine hiljada vojnika na kopnu. Imao sam nekoliko izbora koje sam mogao napraviti. Mogao bih nastaviti i upisati fakultet i biti zaštićen odgodom fakulteta. Mogao sam čekati i ne raditi ništa. Ili bih se mogao prijaviti. Zapravo, postojala je još jedna mogućnost - napustiti zemlju. Čuo sam izvještaje da su neki otišli živjeti u Kanadu kako bi izbjegli regrutiranje. Ali to nije bilo za mene. Ne bih ni počeo razmišljati o tome. Bože, bio sam Amerikanac! I ja bih ispunio svoju obavezu, baš kao što je to učinio moj otac u svoje vrijeme.

Mogao sam vidjeti da ako ne učinim ništa, izbor će biti napravljen umjesto mene. Verovatno bih bio regrutovan, verovatno bih završio u pešadiji. Budući da je moj otac bio u vojnom vazdušnom korpusu, odlučio sam da se prijavim u vazduhoplovne snage. Regrutovanje u vazduhoplovne snage bilo je duže od regruta - četiri godine, u poređenju sa dve godine za regrut. Čak sam i tada mislio da imam veće šanse preživjeti rat u vazduhoplovstvu. Osim toga, tamo bih mogao naučiti zanat ili vještinu koju bih mogao dobro iskoristiti u civilnom životu nakon što mi je regrutirano. Potpisao sam tačkastu liniju i primljen sam, zajedno sa prijateljem iz srednje škole, 29. novembra 1964. godine.

Zajedno smo prošli osnovnu obuku u vazduhoplovnoj bazi Lackland, izvan San Antonija u Teksasu. Nakon šest sedmica osnovnog obrazovanja, moj prijatelj i ja smo se rastali, više se nikada nećemo sresti, sve dok oboje nismo završili svoja četvorogodišnja upisa. Izabran je za školu avio -mehaničara. No, budući da sam dobro položio ispit jezičkih sposobnosti kad smo prolazili kroz osnovnu školu, i zato što su Vazduhoplovstvu u to vrijeme bile prijeko potrebne prevoditeljice, izabran sam za obuku na kineskom mandarinskom. Zašto kineski? Kinezi i sovjetski komunisti snabdijevali su sjevernovijetnamske ogromne količine vojnog naoružanja, a bili su potrebni ljudi koji su mogli slušati kineske radio komunikacije i prevesti ih radi obavještajnih podataka. Za posao je potrebno strogo povjerljivo sigurnosno odobrenje. Godine 1965. pohađao sam Institut za odbrambeni jezik u Presidio Montereyu u Montereyu u Kaliforniji. Bilo je to deset mjeseci najintenzivnijeg školovanja koje se može zamisliti. Učili su nas domaći kineski instruktori i od nas se tražilo da govorimo samo kineski tokom cijele škole, osim tamo gdje je bilo potrebno komunicirati s onima koji ne govore kineski. Kad smo otišli, tečno smo govorili mandarinski i poznavali još 8 kineskih dijalekata.

Nakon škole jezika, proveo sam jednogodišnju turneju po Okinawi, na maloj radio stanici na mjestu zvanom Onna Point. Imao sam sreću da nisam dobio zadatak u jugoistočnoj Aziji! Ta godina na Okinawi bila je relativno sigurna, iako sam toliko dugo boravio na malom ostrvu usred prostranosti Istočnokineskog mora i zaista me tjerao da čeznem za državama i cijenim ih. Nakon što je isteklo 12 mjeseci 13 -mjesečne turneje, primio sam naredbe kojima se skraćuje moj boravak radi premještaja u Odred 4 6922 sigurnosnog krila. Posljednja godina mog upisa ipak bi bila u jugoistočnoj Aziji. Odred 4 bio je negdje u gornjoj zemlji Tajlanda, blizu granice s Laosom. Sa dodjelom je stiglo unapređenje u narednika i dužnosti podoficira. Bio bih nadzornik smjene odgovoran za 15 -ak ljudi u odjeljku kineskog presretanja glasa. I proveo bih tu godinu osluškujući kineske vojne vazdušne transporte, noseći zalihe iz Pekinga, kineske komunističke prestonice u Hanoj, glavni grad Severnog Vijetnama.

Većina američkih operacija na Tajlandu držana je u tajnosti iz više razloga. I mnogi ljudi, čak ni vijetnamski veterani nisu bili svjesni šta se tamo događa. Malo je ljudi u Sjedinjenim Državama bilo svjesno da čak imamo baze na Tajlandu, a još manje u Laosu ili Kambodži. Zbog toga neki veterane koji su služili na Tajlandu neki smatraju lažnim ratnim veteranima. Ali operacije izvan Tajlanda, Laosa i Kambodže pomogle su u spašavanju života nebrojenih hiljada naših vojnika u Vijetnamu. Mnogo hiljada bombardovanja i misija borbene podrške izvedeno je iz Tajlanda, a oni su odigrali važnu ulogu u ratu. Bez njih bi nesumnjivo bilo mnogo više imena navedenih na Spomen obilježju Vijetnamskog rata u Washingtonu.

Iako je Tajland bio relativno sigurna dužnost, u usporedbi s Vijetnamom, čak je i tamo bilo incidenata gerilskih zasjeda na selu i napada saperima na naše zračne baze. Vazdušnu bazu Udorn, malo dalje od nas, udarili su saperi u julu te godine. U napadu su poginula dva tajlandska čuvara na obodu, a najmanje dva Amerikanca su ranjena, jedan od njih smrtno, nabojem koji je detonirao jedan od policajaca. Među ubijenim napadačima bio je oficir vojske Sjevernog Vijetnama, kapetan. I jedna jedinica NVA je zarobljena živa. Bilo je očigledno da su Sjeverni Vijetnamci direktno pomagali komunističkim pobunjenicima na Tajlandu, Laosu i Kambodži, kao i Vijetnamcima u Južnom Vijetnamu.

Proveo sam 10 mjeseci na Tajlandu kada sam dobio naređenja koja su mi smanjila turneju. Mogao bih otići kući i vratiti se civilnom životu šest sedmica ranije! Čudno, bio sam rastrgan kad je došlo vrijeme odmora. Zavoljela sam Tajland i njegove ljude i mrzila sam odlazak, isto koliko sam čeznula za odlaskom kući kad sam tek stigla. To je bio fenomen koji su iskusili mnogi vijetnamski veterani, i to jedan potpuno neočekivan. To je otežavalo povratak kući koliko je i odlazak iz kuće bio težak.

Uvijek sam bio ponosan na svoju službu, uprkos nepopularnosti rata i uprkos njegovom ishodu. Smatram da je privilegija služiti. Još uvijek vjerujem da smo imali plemenitu svrhu biti tamo - spasiti ljude jugoistočne Azije od najezde komunizma. Samo se njime loše upravljalo. Što god netko rekao o umiješanosti Amerike tamo, načinu na koji je rat vođen ili ratnom tragičnom ishodu, to ne umanjuje tu plemenitu svrhu za mene. E -pošta [email protected]

Naredniče Keith Rohring: Služio sam u Vazduhoplovstvu Sjedinjenih Država od januara 1964. do novembra 1967. - kada sam otpušten 60 dana ranije da bih se vratio na fakultet u januaru 1968. Stupio sam iz Buffala, New York, i vratio se tamo krajem 1967. otpuštanje iz USAF -a. Trenutno živim u Albuquerqueu u Novom Meksiku od 1997.

Služio sam na mjestu na rijeci Mekong po imenu Nakhon Phanom (zvano NKP, zvano Gola Fanny) 450 milja sjeverno i istočno od Bangkoka. Baza je bila polazište za tajne operacije u Laosu i Kambodži - ja nikako nisam dobro upućen u te teme.

Baza NKP-a bila je i "radio-svjetionik" za letove B-52 za ​​i iz U-Tapao na Tajlandu i Anderson AFB na Guamu u Pacifiku. Omogućio je triangulaciju s "Cricketom" u zraku C -111 ili C -121 koji je letio u krugovima nešto južnije i istočnije od NKP -a - većina aviona (20 plus godina prije GPS -a - ljudi) - mogli su "otkriti" gdje se nalaze koristeći stare dugačke izgubljene ručne metode izračuna.

NKP je također imao komplet jedinica za traganje i spašavanje - kad sam ja bio tamo, helikopteri su bili mnogo manje organizirani i općenito "posuđeni" od organiziranih jedinica u drugim američkim bazama. Blizina Ho Chi Minh staze značilo je da je NKP najbolja baza za postavljanje jurišnih aviona s laganim kretanjem-poput A-26 i A-1E. Bilo je to i najpogodnije mjesto za letenje lakim avionima tipa Cessna pod nazivom FAC-ovi (prednji kontrolori zraka) u jedinicama poput OV-1 i OV-2 Bird Dogs, a kasnije i OV-10-dvojaki motor, mnogo veći i lošeg vremena letački avion.

Moj posao je bio obavljanje različitih računovodstvenih aktivnosti, isplata plata i finansijskih isplata. To je uključivalo raščišćavanje zemljišta za stanovanje u bazi, jer je njegovo stanovništvo eksplodiralo tokom mjeseci koliko sam bio tamo. Takođe sam mnogo zarađivao u Bangkoku kako bih pokupio tajlandski bat za plaćanje tajlandskih radnika, i američkih dolara za plaćanje Amerikancima - vojsci i "ostalima". NISMO koristili MPC (vojne potvrde o plaćanju) kao što su se koristili u većini drugih zemalja - uključujući Južni Vijetnam. Izvršio sam popis nafte, ulja i maziva sve dok nisam obučio nekoga drugog da to uradi. Očistio sam stotine i stotine jutara zemlje - koristeći tajlandske radnike za obavljanje posla. Platio sam im tri centa po satu za radnika, pet centi za vođu tima (20 ljudi) i deset centi po satu za rođake provincijskog načelnika koji se nisu pojavili.

Bio bih voljan razgovarati o svim ovim aktivnostima, kao i o brojnim "incidentima" povezanim sa padovima aviona koji su se skoro propustili - koji me proganjaju i danas. Dogodio se i incident s tigrom uživo! Rakete kalibra 122 mm raznosile su pistu u DaNangu dok smo taksirali za polazak za Saigon. Bilo je incidenata sa požarom protiv aviona Nui Ba Den (Crna Djevica). Zrakoplovi s napuknutim trupom; leteći kroz krošnje drveća u C-130. I više, mnogo više.

Moj brat Kevin M Rohring, 19 godina, vojnik, vojnik USMC, sa 2. odredom, četa Charlie, 3. vod, 1. bataljon, 5. puk, 1. divizija marinaca, bio je KIA u Vijetnamu 27. marta 1967. - stigao je "u zemlju" kao ja napustio jugoistočnu Aziju u novembru 1966. Vratio sam se sa svog stalnog radnog mjesta u Tokiju u Japan u Buffalo, NY da sahranim svog mlađeg brata, a zatim se vratio u Japan kako bih završio posljednjih 9 mjeseci svog četvorogodišnjeg angažmana u USAF -u. Kevinovo ime nalazi se na panelu 17 istočno u "Zidu" - poznatom i kao Memorijal veterana Vijetnama u Washingtonu. Razgovarao sam i održavam kontakt sa nekim od Kevinovih prijatelja iz USMC -a.

Imam filozofiju o Vijetnamskom ratu. To se promijenilo tokom decenija. U velikoj mjeri patim od PTSP -a - manifestujući svoju ružnoću kao bijes i bijes, nenasilno iskazivanje verbalnog bijesa kao simptom. Pokušavam se izvući iz tog bijesa - ali tek sam počeo. E -pošta [email protected]

Poručnik D. Shackman: Rođen sam u augustu 1944. godine u maloj poljoprivrednoj zajednici u jugoistočnom Kanzasu. Moje formativne godine provele su radeći na farmama i u lokalnom biznisu. Moja mašta od 6. godine bila je da budem vojnik. Zavidio sam dječacima čiji su očevi pozvani na službu u Koreju ili su bili veterani Drugog svjetskog rata. Čim sam završio srednju školu, sa 17 godina, stupio sam u službu. Dio razloga bila je moja želja da budem vojnik, a dio je bio bijeg od dosade malog poljoprivrednog grada. U početku sam se školovao za pješaka lakog oružja. Mrzeo sam život. Blistale su čizme i nosile su uštirkane uniforme samo da ih zaprljaju i pokvase trčeći uokolo i vježbajući formacije. Kad mi se ukazala prilika da izađem iz ovog života, iskoristio sam je. Nikada nisam čuo za Vijetnam, ali bilo je mjesta za moj MOS (vojno -stručna specijalnost). Tražili su se volonteri i otišao sam. Prvih 8 mjeseci proveo sam radeći s onim što smo nazvali Ruff Puffs, regionalnih jedinica/jedinica popularnih snaga. To su bili honorarni vojnici koji su se obučavali da štite svoje domove i zajednice. Vjerujem da je ekvivalent u Engleskoj domobranstvo. Bio sam uznemiren zadatkom jer vojnici nisu hteli da se bore. Nisam imao izbora nego ostati, Sjedinjene Države u to vrijeme nisu imale velike jedinice vojnika u Vijetnamu. Bio sam ranjen i ostatak svog boravka proveo sam u bolnici.

Upisao sam fakultet i diplomirao za 3 godine. Takođe sam dobio proviziju i ponovo sam stupio u vojsku kao potporučnik. Umjesto pješadije, ja sam sada bio terenska artiljerija. Poslan sam nazad u Vijetnam sa prvom vazdušno -konjičkom divizijom 1969. Završavajući ovu turneju, obučen sam za balističke rakete i otišao u Nemačku gde sam služio 3 godine. 1973. vojska je imala RIF (smanjenje na snazi). Pošto sam bio jedan od previše kapetana, oslobođen sam aktivne dužnosti. Od 1974. do 1992. radio sam kao fotograf sa velikom korporacijom u svemirskoj oblasti. Opet sam bio uhvaćen u padu kad je izbio mir širom svijeta. Od 1993. godine bavim se prodajom automobila. Ostao sam sa rezervnim komponentama i penzionisao se iz vojske 1992. Ponosan sam na svoju službu u Vijetnamu. Radio sam svoj posao kako sam vidio, vidio sam bol i patnju s obje strane. Nisam ništa uradio tokom vremena koje sam tamo proveo, a čega se stidim. E -pošta [email protected]

Mornarički pomoćnik: Michael Lerp: Rođen sam u Baltimore Marylandu. Godine 1966. pridružio sam se Mornarici Sjedinjenih Država. Nakon što sam završio "bootcamp", pohađao sam USN Naval Hospital Corps School u Great Lakes IL. U julu 1969. godine, nakon što sam služio na brojnim mjestima dežurstva, poslan sam u Poljoprivrednu medicinsku školu u kampu Pendleton u Kaliforniji. Ovdje je mornarički korpus naučio o taktici Marine Corp i naprednoj terenskoj prvoj pomoći. Marine Corp nema vlastitih liječnika, medicinskih sestara, zubnih tehničara, svećenstva ili pomoćnika. Kao dio mornarice, marinci su koristili osoblje mornarice za ispunjavanje ovih zadataka tijekom svoje povijesti.

Među završetkom ove osmonedeljne škole, raspoređen sam u 2. vod golf čete 2. bataljona 26. marinaca. Tada sam imao 21 godinu i bio sam među najstarijim članovima svog voda. Moji drugovi iz voda imali su prosječnu starost od 18 godina i u početku mi je to bilo pomalo zabrinjavajuće jer sam trebao ovisiti o tim mladim ljudima koji će me voditi kroz dužnost. Moj vod je imao u prosjeku između 50 i 60 marinaca, a zajedno s još jednim korpusom moj posao je bio brinuti se za ranjenike, brinuti se o bolesnima i provoditi sanitarne procedure. Išao sam u patrole s marincima, spavao tamo gdje su oni spavali, jeli ono što su jeli i općenito živjeli u uvjetima koji su bili potpuno suprotni od uvjeta drugog osoblja mornarice.

Ranjenici: Moja je dužnost bila pružiti prvu pomoć marincima koji su povrijeđeni neprijateljskom akcijom ili nesrećom. Nadalje, bila mi je dužnost utvrditi ozbiljnost njihovih ozljeda i donijeti odluku o tome jesu li poslani u bolnicu na liječenje ili ne. Nosila sam "Jedinicu jednu" koja je bila paket koji je sadržavao lijekove, zavoje, intravenozne otopine i drugu opremu. Ovo pakovanje težilo je dvadesetak kilograma. U mnogo navrata sam pružao prvu pomoć pod vatrom. Najteže mi je bilo odrediti tko će se prvo liječiti, a tko zadnji liječiti ako je više od jednog marinca ranjeno. Naše opće pravilo bilo je prvo liječiti ljude koji su imali rane opasne po život, ali su nakon liječenja imali šanse za preživljavanje. Zatim su se liječili oni s lakšim ozljedama i na kraju liječili oni koji su imali male šanse za život. Ovo je bio najteži dio mog posla.

Bolesni: Imalo je više ljudi koji su se razboleli nego ranjenih. Malarija, groznice, infekcije i tako dalje bile su uobičajene. Moj posao je bio da utvrdim ko će od bolesnih biti posjećen ljekaru. Iako se prije slanja u Vijetnam nisam slagao s obrazloženjem o umiješanosti vlade SAD -a u Vijetnam, otišao sam tamo brinuti se o bolesnima i ranjenicima. Mornarički vojnici službeno nisu bili borci, ali nakon što sam stekao iskustvo na terenu, stajao sam straže u zasjedama, naučio sam pucati iz mitraljeza M-60 i bacača granata M79. Iako sam dobio zadatak da nosim 45 cal. pištolj, nosio sam pušku M16. Učinio sam sve što sam mogao da "My Marines" prođu kroz njihovu turneju. Zauzvrat, marinci su učinili sve što su mogli da me zaštite i olakšaju mi ​​život.

Godine 1970. ranjen sam i raspoređen u prvu medicinsku pomorsku bolnicu u DaNangu, a zatim odveden u Sjedinjene Države na daljnje liječenje. Mnogi marinci s kojima sam služio bili su ubijeni, a vidjeti smrt kako dolazi ovim mladim ljudima je teret koji ću nositi do kraja života. Do današnjeg dana prijatelji mi govore da sam ostavila malo sebe u Vijetnamu. S tim se slažem, izgubiti dobre prijatelje znači izgubiti dio sebe. Pošaljite e -poruku na adresu [email protected]

Kaplar Mike Toliver: Rođen sam 1. oktobra 1949. u Albuquerqueu, Novi Meksiko, SAD. Rođenje i odrastanje na području s nekoliko ljudi i puno divljih prostora dovelo me do ranog razvoja interesa za prirodu, koji se očitovao u interesu za leptire koji imam do danas. Bio sam prilično običan učenik koji je odrastao, a zapravo sam mrzio srednju školu. Kada sam 1967. završio srednju školu, nisam imao želju da pohađam fakultet, što su moji roditelji htjeli da radim. Umjesto toga, imala sam neodređenu želju da se pridružim vojsci i "odradim svoj dio posla".

Kada sam napunio 18 godina, u oktobru 1967. godine, odlučio sam da ću se pridružiti Korpusu američke mornarice, dijelom i zato što sam osjećao da moram nešto "dokazati". Tako sam se pridružio u decembru 1967. godine. 5. januara 1968. prijavio sam se u kamp za obuku u San Diegu, Kalifornija. Nakon osnovne obuke, pješadijske obuke i obuke za radio -operatora (moja vojna specijalnost), poslan sam u Vijetnam 25. juna 1968. Tamo sam se pridružio 3. bataljonu, 1. puku marinaca, 1. diviziji marinaca. Poslovali smo oko Da Nanga na sjeveru južnog Vijetnama. Područje u kojem smo se nalazili bilo je uglavnom pješčana primorska ravnica, s pirinčanim poljima i malim selima koja su se nizala po krajoliku. Uglavnom smo patrolirali područjem tražeći neprijatelja. Naša najveća opasnost bile su zamke za miniranje, posebno ručne bombe sa uklonjenim osiguračima (tako da bi odmah eksplodirale), pričvršćene na tanke, gotovo nevidljive zaštitne žice. Također smo nailazili na povremenu nagaznu minu na cesti, a povremene artiljerijske granate i avionske bombe namještene su da eksplodiraju kad bi ih neko nagazio ili spotaknuo žicu za okidanje. Povremeno bismo stupili u kontakt s neprijateljem i došlo bi do vatrene borbe. Ja sam u tome generalno bio na raspolaganju zapovjednicima koji su im omogućili komunikaciju s različitim dijelovima njihove komande. Samo povremeno sam se zaista uključivao u snimanje.

Odslužio sam svojih 13 mjeseci (marinci su imali 13 -mjesečne ture, sve ostale službe imale su samo 12 -mjesečne ture) bez ikakvih ozljeda, a samo povremeno bilo koga koga sam poznavao. Nakratko sam razmišljao o produženju kako bih završio svoj prijem u Vijetnam, jer nisam želio podnijeti gomilu Mickeyja Mousea u Sjedinjenim Državama. Ipak, odlučujem da je vjerovatno bilo bolje trpjeti pljuvanje i poliranje 6 mjeseci nego riskirati da me 4 mjeseca dignu u zrak. Tako sam napustio Vijetnam 19. jula 1969. godine, otprilike u vrijeme kada su američki astronauti hodali po Mjesecu. Imao sam kratak odmor kod kuće (vrlo čudno), a zatim sam završio upis u bazu helikoptera Santa Ana u Kaliforniji, oslobođen sa aktivne dužnosti 10. decembra 1969. godine.

U januaru 1970. započeo sam fakultet na Univerzitetu u Novom Meksiku. U maju 1970. godine trupe Nacionalne garde ubile su 4 učenika u državi Kent u Ohaju, a naš kampus je poludio - pozvana je Nacionalna garda Novog Meksika koja je bajonetirala 11 studenata, a državna policija došla je u kampus i uhapsila preko 100 studenata. Prilično čudno za borbenog veterinara. Nakon toga sam završio biologiju, otišao na Univerzitet Illinois da proučava insekte, magistrirao i doktorirao. u U. Illinoisu, tamo sam upoznao svoju buduću suprugu i zaposlio se predajući biologiju na koledžu Eureka (alma mater predsjednika Reagana). Od tada sam se udomaćio u akademskom životu, dobio kćer (koja sada ima devet godina). Svake godine ponovo živim u Vijetnamu kada držim predavanje o ratu na našem kursu zapadne civilizacije i kulture (koji moraju pohađati svi studenti na Eureki). Zapravo, ponovo proživljavam neki aspekt 'Nam-a gotovo svaki dan svog života. E -pošta [email protected]

Earl Martin: Proveo sam oko šest godina u Vijetnamu. (1966-60, 73-75 i 1993.) Za to vrijeme nisam bio u vojnoj službi, već sam služio kao prigovarač savjesti i radio sa vijetnamskim poljoprivrednicima na pružanju pomoći, i

na raščišćavanju polja neeksplodirane municije. Kada su revolucionarne snage preuzele vlast 1975., ostao sam u zemlji još četiri mjeseca. Napisao sam knjigu o tom iskustvu pod naslovom Dosezanje druge strane (Crown Publishers).

Živjeli smo u blizini My Laija u provinciji Quang Ngai. I visited My Lai various times during the war and again at their 25th anniversary on March 16, 1993. It was quite moving. I was asked to address the gathered crowd of farmers and students in Vietnamese. A moment to be remembered. Email [email protected]

John C. Ratliff: I was in college in the years, 1964-66, when I decided to enlist in the US Air Force rather than be drafted. I was taking fairly difficult course work, and not maintaining the grades I needed to be exempt from the draft. In January 1967 I enlisted in the USAF, and went to Basic Training.

During Basic Training, volunteers were requested to join an elite group known as "Pararescue." I had heard of this group, as I had been in a Search and Rescue Explorer Scout post (part of the Boy Scouts of America). So I volunteered and went through the intensive 8-month training. This training included:

Preconditioning training (running and swimming); Parachute Jump School at Ft. Benning, Georgia; U.S. Navy Underwater Swimmers' School in Key West, Florida; Survival School in Washington State; Medical School in Texas; Mountain Climbing School in Georgia; Jungle Survival School in Panama; Pararescue Transition School in Florida.

I served first in Okinawa and Korea, then in Bermuda and finally in Florida. I had several interesting missions during that time; our missionwas to rescue people from accident scenes, especially from aircraft crashes. I also was a part of the world-wide rescue force for Apollo 13.

My enlistment was just about up when I decided that I had not seen everything, and extended my enlistment to go to DoNang, Vietnam. I then almost immediately worked to get out of Vietnam on an "early out" forreturning to school. I served in the 37th Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron in DaNang between October 21 1970 and June 9, 1971. I had a couple of missions while there, including one in which we pulled two pilots out of the mountains about 45 miles from Hanoi.

I graduated from Oregon State University in 1975, married a gal I met there from Hong Kong in 1977, taught for a year at Oregon Institute of Technology, then was a training officer, and for 18 years and a month worked for a state-owned insurance company (workers's compensation insurance) before being fired about a year and a half ago. I've been trying to get a job since (without success), and now am setting up a consulting company and contemplating the future. I think that some of my Vietnam experience contributed to my termination, as I would not bend when I felt that deep principals were involved (things like keeping commitments, honesty, providing only true figures to upper management).

I have since found a position, and for over 3 years have worked as Senior Environmental Health and Safety Engineer with Etec Systems, An Applied Materials Company. We have now moved to the Portland, Oregon area. This is one story that is having a happy ending. If one looks long and hard enough, there are employers out there who will hire a person who has been fired.

My advise to your students is to keep with their values, and don't compromise their ideals or their moral code. It worked for me in Vietnam, and it worked again finding this position.

My wife is a hospital pharmacist, and we have two boys, now 22 and 20 years old and enjoying college at two different universities. Both are doing very well, in mechanical engineering and computer science. One is going to Oregon State University, the other is a Junior in High School. I look forward to communicating with people who are interested in the Vietnam War. Email [email protected]

Lieutenant Gerald Ney: Gerald Alan Ney, born February 18, 1945 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the first of 2 boys & 2 girls; while father stationed at radar installation near Victorville, California in the Mojave Desert. Ancestry is German, Swiss, English, French, Dutch & Scotch. Twelve years of School Sisters of Notre Dame in grade school & high school. Confirmation name: "George". Was cub scout, boy scout, altar boy & newspaper boy (5 years, 10 months). Played accordion 2nd through 8th grades & French Horn in high school band and university orchestra. Add in glasses, corduroy pants, love of classical music, good grades, poor athlete, and being a "good kid" during high school, I wasn't just a square, but a cube.

In November '62, Kennedy called up the Wisconsin National Guard for the Berlin crisis. Fast approaching draft age, this was a wake up call. By the time I entered the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee [UWM], I figured we were going to get into a war someplace soon (probably Germany and/or Cuba), and that it would be better to go in as an officer than a private. When US Army ROTC (Reserve Officer Training Corps) made its pitch to the freshman males, I signed up. At the beginning of my junior year, I signed a contract, in exchange for a stipend for books, by which Uncle Sam owned my bod. Dropping out of school after that would have meant immediate induction into the Army as a private.

Meanwhile joined Alpha Phi Omega National service Fraternity, Newman Student Association (Catholic students' group named after John Henry Cardinal Newman of UK), International Club, Pershing Rifles (a military fraternity fielding drill teams), Scabbard & Blade Honorary Military Fraternity & Gamma Theta Upsilon Honorary Geography Fraternity. Or as my dad put it: "Can the Vice-Chancellor spare two hours to cut the grass this Saturday?". Switched majors from Meteorology to Geography after some disastrous encounters with calculus.

Attended ROTC summer camp at Fort Riley, Ks. in JUL & AUG 1966. A bit flabby and overweight, with a tendency to deliberately try and see all angles in tactical situations that demanded quick decisions, I came out 296th of 297 (297 was sent home). Graduated mainly on the strength of taking whatever they dished out and coming back for more.

In April '67, if my memory serves me, was part of the honor guard for the first UWM grad killed in Vietnam. Watching the young widow, the six of us made a pact not to get married till after we went to Vietnam. As far as I know all did so. In May '67, the presentation, of the US flag to that same widow at the ROTC Chancellor's Review, was used as the signal to start the first major antiwar demonstration at UWM. As student election commissioner was one of about a dozen ROTC

cadets singled out to have daisies placed in their rifles. Unlike later years' demonstrations there was no trouble.

Upon graduation with a BS in Geography, commissioned a 2Lt in Army Military Intelligence (6/4/67). Active duty at Fort Benning, 11/26/67 for Infantry Officer's Basic ("to get an appreciation of the problems of the infantry officer") followed 2/15/68 by Aerial Surveillance Officer's Course at Fort Holabird in Baltimore, Maryland. Five months later, after 30 days leave, arrived at Cam Ranh Bay in Vietnam and assigned as OIC (officer in charge) of the aerial imagery section of the 172nd MI (Military Intelligence) Co., 173rd airborne brigade at LZ English, Binh Dinh Province, II Corps. Spent the next year in that job, with trips to Saigon & Qui Nhon for training classes, and one to Bao Lac on detached duty for 19 days in February '69. Spent much of off-duty time on court-martial duty.

Flew 39 hand-held photo missions, using an Asahi Pentax 35mm w/200mm lens in anything available to fly. Fortunate to have only been shot at once by the enemy on these versus twice by our own 105mm howitzers. Of course there was the routine dozen nightly mortar shells for several days at a stretch and the occasional perimeter probes. Still I didn't have a bad year compared to many others.

After Vietnam, stationed at Fort Carson, Co. from August '69 to July '71, working first in the same job, then as S-2 (Staff Intelligence Officer) successively in an Infantry Battalion and a Field Artillery Group, then as a supply officer. Met my wife through a folk Mass group in Colorado Springs and got married 6 weeks before separating from the service. Found my Geography degree and experience as an officer meant zero on the job market.

Thanks to the supply officer position, eventually landed a job with the Navy as an inventory manager at the Aviation Supply Office (now renamed Navy Inventory Control Point {NAVICP} - Philadelphia); which I've worked for since October '72. All years since in Philly, except SEPT '77 to JUN '79 at NAS (Naval Air Station) Alameda, California as a field representative.

Married now 26 years, with 2 boys 25 & 24 and a girl 19. Didn't become active in veterans' affairs till 1985. Wasn't burying myself in the woodwork like many Vietnam Vets, but was just bound up in keeping my family's heads above water. Currently and a life member of Vietnam Veterans of America (VVA), Association of the 173rd Airborne Brigade & Vietnam Helicopter CrewMembers of America (VHCMA). Also a member of Catholic War Veterans (CWV). Past president of my VVA & 173rd chapters, VVA state council delegate & chapter education committee chairman (go into schools & teach on the war), 173rd delegate to United Veterans Council [assistant chaplain] & to Philadelphia Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund. EMail [email protected]


A Guide to the United States’ History of Recognition, Diplomatic, and Consular Relations, by Country, since 1776: Vietnam

Relations between citizens of the United States and residents of what is today the Socialist Republic of Vietnam began during the 19th century, when that region was a colony of the French Empire. For decades interactions were primarily of a commercial nature, with a few other areas of non-official contact. Formal relations began only after Vietnam gained its independence from France following World War II.


WOLFHOUNDS FOREVER!

This web site is dedicated to all the brave men that served in the 2/27 Wolfhounds C co 2nd platoon and ALL the men who served in Charlie Company during 1965- 1971. Our platoon was rich with heroes, and men willing to give their all. We honor our brothers that gave the ultimate sacrifice of their lives and we are ever grateful for everyone's service. Many died, even more were wounded and we never left anyone behind.

Our goal is to locate as many brothers as possible and have everyone attend. The picture pages are a result of many men sending in pictures to contribute to our web site. This web page is our testament to each other that "All gave some, some gave all". With that in mind, it is now our mission to locate every man who served in the 2nd platoon and reunite ourselves once more. We shared an experience that will forever cast us as brothers.

If you served with us, and would like to contribute any information to this site please contact me, John "BIG JOHN" Quintrell at: [email protected]

If you remember FSB Crocket, Reed, Jackson, Diamond I, II, III, going into Cambodia, the Hobo Woods, Iron Triangle, Michelin Rubber Plantation, Fu Cong Bridge, Trang Bang, Tay Ninh, Dodge City (the night the 101 Airborne was decimated while we acted as blocking force), Cu Chi when the chinook choppers were blown up by sappers, then we need to hear from you. It has been nearly 42 years since most of us have given great thought to our Vietnam Service. Please let us know where you are. Welcome home brothers.


Naval Air Reconnaissance (EW) History Index

Early Years, World War Two.
Early pioneers
Howard Lorenzen, NRL Scientist
Ref: 001 Howard Otto Lorenzen
CPO Jack Churchill
PO1 Robert Russell
Conducted first trials (Cast Mike) of Electronic
Counter Measures in the South Pacific. Aircraft utilized (piggyback), USAAF B-17, Navy PBY, and PB4Y.

Early Aircraft
World War Two
B-17, PBY, PB4Y
Ref: 002 Early Aircraft
Ref: 003 Early Cast Mike Aircraft

Fifties Era Aircraft
PB4Y-2, P4M-1Q, TV-2, A3D-1Q, P2V-5F, F9F-8T.
Ref: 004 Early VQ Aircraft in the 50s
P4M-1Q Configuration
Ref: 005 P4M Layout
A3D-1Q Configuration
Ref: 005a A3D-1Q Layout

VQ-1 Lineage
VC-11, NAS Miramar, CA, Special Projects Division/Com Unit 38C, NS Sangley Point, VW-1Detachment Alpha, VW- 3A Detachment Alpha, ECMRON ONE (VQ-1), Sangley Pt. and Iwakuni and Fleet Air Reconnaissance Squadron One (VQ-1), Atsugi.

Known patches of unit evolution.
Ref: 005b VQ-1 Logo Evolution

Melvin Davidow, P4M pilot, discusses the first pilots that would form Special Projects, and the TRANSPAC of the aircraft to Sangley, Point, Republic of the Philippines.
Ref: 006 In the beginning.

Robert Bublitz, P4M pilot, discusses operations in Special Projects, relationship with VW parent squadrons and everyday life.
Ref: 007 To Speak of Many Things

Pete Bohley, P4M Radioman, discusses life at Sangley Point in the early 50s, operations flying the P4M-1Q.
Ref: 008 Pete Bohley early VQ-1

VQ-2 Lineage

VP-26 Det. A, Naval Patrol Force/ ComUnit 32G, Port Lyautey, French Morocco. VW-2 Det. Alpha, Port Lyautey, French Morocco, ECMRON TWO, Port Lyautey and Naval Station, Rota, Spain.

Recollection 0f Port Lyautey

John F. Hewson, P4M-1Q pilot, discusses early life and operation at Port Lyautey, French Morocco.
Ref: 009 Early VQ-2

Robert Ottensmeyer, P4M-1Q evaluator, describes his first hand account of the ditching of a P4M off Nicosia, Cyprus and a description of the P4M-1Q.
Ref: 010 A Sad Day in the Cold War

Loss of PB4Y-2 from VP-26 Det. A, which was shot down by Soviet fighters off Latvia.
Ref: 011 Shoot Down PB4Y 1950

1 June 1955
VW-3 Det Alpha becomes ECMRON ONE (VQ-1), with LCDR E. R. Hall as first Commanding Officer.
Ref: 012 1st VQ-1 CO
Ref: 012a Original ECMRON One Plankowner Certtificate

ECMRON-ONE moves from Sangley Point to Marine Corps Air Station, Iwakuni, Japan in late 1955.

LTJG Park discusses Sangley Point operations and the move to Iwakuni, Japan.
Ref: 013 William Park’s History

Hugh Ward’s account of P4M-1Q losing an engine as in, “Falling off of the aircraft!”
Ref: 015 LT Hugh Ward

Bill Langland, a P4M-1Q plane captain, describes taking CO’s dog to Iwakuni on a P4M.
Ref: 016 A Dog Story on the move to Iwakuni

1 September 1955

VW-2 Det. Able becomes ECMRON TWO (VQ-2) at Port Lyautey. CDR Kalin, first Commanding Officer.
Ref: 017 First CO VQ-2/Officers of VW-2A

Adron Joyner discusses VQ-2 in the Fifties.
Ref: 017a VQ-2 In the Fifties

1956
VQ-1 P4M-1Q shot down by CHICOM Migs off Shanghai on 22 August, 1956. Sixteen brave sailors lost. Crew list and some details of shoot-down are in the reference.
Ref: 018 Shoot Down P4M-1Q

Ens. Harry Sunder’s sworn deposition on the events of 22 August 1956 when P4M-1Q was shot down off Shanghai.
Ref: 018a Harry Sunders Statement

VQ-1 and 2 receive Douglas A3D-1Q aircraft.

Stars and Stripes chronicle the first arrival at MCAS Iwakuni. Photographs of first A3D-1Q arriving in Port Lyautey.
Ref: 019 First A3D-1Q

1958
ECMRON TWO moves from Port Lyautey to Naval Station, Rota, Spain.

Adron Joyner describes life at Port Lyautey just before the move to Rota, Spain.
Ref: 019b Life in Port Lyautey in the late 50s

Operation, “Blue Bat”, Lebanon Crises of 1958
Adron Joyner describes VQ-2 participation.
Ref: 019c Operation “Blue Bat.”

VQ-1 receives the Lockheed TV-2 Shooting Star jet trainer.
Ref: 019d TV-2 in VQ-1

1959
Both squadrons receive Lockheed P2V-5F aircraft.
Ref: 019e P2V-5F in VQ Squadrons

VQ-2 also had a P2V-3, ostensibly for training but in actuality it was used for logistics and liberty runs. It was affectionately called the “Toonerville Trolley.”
Ref: 020 Tony Musco describes a liberty run.

P2V-5F were utilized to gathering ICBM intelligence, primarily at Incirlik, Turkey (VQ-2) and Shemya, Alaska.VQ-1).

Recollection by Don Gibbs flying crew on P2V-5F at Incirlik.
Ref: 021 Recollection and photographs.

Recollection of Chuck Christman configuring P4M/A3D-1Q /P2V -5F at Shemya, Alaska.
Ref: 022 A3D-Q, P4M-1Q and P2V-5F

1959
VQ-1 P4M-1Q (PR-9) shot up over the Sea of Japan by North Korean fighters. Makes emergency landing at Miho, Japan. Pictures and details from the incident are in references.
Ref: 023 Attack on P4M-1Q, PR-9
Ref: 023a Eye witness account of attack by Robert Harrelson.

US Army Operations with VQ

Special Activities Detachment Two (SAD-2, Rota)
Ref: 025 Army SAD at VQ-2

A3D-2Q/EA-3B, WV-2Q/EC-121M, EP-3B, EP-3E,

F9F-8T (P2V-5F left early 1960)

VQ-1 moves from Iwakuni, Japan to Atsugi, Japan.
Ref: 029 Atsugi Pictures

VQ-1 and 2 are re-designated, Fleet Air Reconnaissance Squadrons (FAIRECONRON)

1961
On 4 January 1961, VQ-1 WV-2Q, PR-24, BUNO 135747, was attacked by Chinese fighter aircraft. In the ensuing evasive actions, the upper radome left the aircraft.
Ref: 031a PR-24 sans upper radome.

1962
VQ-2 loses an EC-121M over Germany, all hands perish.

Accident contributed to failure of the aft cargo door.
Ref: 032 Accident over Germany

1963
Early EA-3B involvement in Vietnam
Ref: 033 EA-3B Pilot Ted Cunningham’s participation.

Gulf of Tonkin Incident and the acceleration of VQ-1’s involvement in Vietnam.

1965
EC-121M BRIGAND and Big Look comes on the line in VQ-1’s electronic arsenal.
Ref: 033a Alan Cranston’s recollection.

VQ-1 Det Bravo started at USAF Base, DaNang, Republic of Vietnam.

Allan Prevette describes first permanent EC-121M Detachment at DaNang, Republic of Vietnam on 3 September 1965.
Ref: 034 Start of Det. Bravo

Sidney Wood’s account of VQ operations in Vietnam from an Intelligence Officer’s viewpoint.
Ref: 036 VQ-1 in Vietnam

Douglas Sherbourne’s follow on account of VQ operations in Vietnam from an Intelligence Officer’s viewpoint.
Ref: 037 VQ-1 in Vietnam follow on.

Robert E. Morrison’s History of NAVCOMMSTA PHIL Support Det, DaNang describes the NSG role in Vietnam operations.
Ref: 038 038 History of Det Bravo DaNang

1966
Mike Palmer’s recollection of VQ-1 Special Projects and Civilian Elmer Akerberg, Electronic Engineer.
Ref: 039 Elmer Akerberg

1967
Richard Bukowski’s recollection of the rocket attack that destroyed VQ-1 enlisted quarters July 15,1967.
Ref: 040 Rocket attack at DaNang

1969
April 15, 1969, PR-21, EC-121M, BUNO 135749, shot down by North Korean MiG fighters.
Ref: 041 Shoot down of PR-21
Ref: 041a Recap of events of the shoot down and rescue attempts.

VQ-1 receives two EP-3B Batrack aircraft.
Ref: 042 EP-3B

March 16, 1970, PR-26, EC-121M, BUNO 145927, crashed on landing at DaNang Airbase, Republic of Vietnam. Twenty-three perish and eight survive the crash.
Ref: 043 Crash of PR-26

1971
VQ-1 changes home port from NAS Atsugi, Japan to NAS Agana, Guam. VW-1 and VAP-61 are dis-established and become part of VQ-1.
Ref: 044 VW-1 and VAP-61

1972
VQ-1 participates in Son Toy, North Vietnam raid to free US POWs.
Ref: 046 Son Toy Raid

1973
VQ-1 Det Bravo (Vietnam) disestablished

Last EA-3B combat flight flown from DaNang, RVN
Ref: 047a Last Flight from Vietnam

1974
EC-121M aircraft are retired from VQ-1 and 2

1975
Recollections of an EP-3B Flight Engineer on 1 May 1975 mission to Vietnam.
Ref: 48a A May 1975 EP-3B flight to Vietnam and subsequent events.

A VQ-1 manned listening post was set up on Arote Point, near Naval Station, Guam. It was dubbed PR-29.

Robert “Bob” Fritzius, OINC PR-29

Chuck Christman, Special Projects Civilian.

Ron Williams, CPO in charge of setting up.
Ref: 049 A Thumbnail History of PR-29

1983
1 October 1983 Russian Shoot down of Korean Air Flight 007
Ref: 050 KAL B747 Shoot down

1985
23 January VA-3B 142672 lost at sea. CO of VQ-1 and eight others perished.
Ref: 051 1985 loss of VA-3B Triple Sticks

Late 1980s an early 1990s

2001
April 1 Eleven Days of Heroism, Inflight Collision of PR-32 and Chinese Fighter.
Ref: Eleven Days of Heroism. EP3 in Hainan.


Istorija

Vietnam Veterans of America (VVA) is the only national Vietnam veterans organization congressionally chartered and exclusively dedicated to Vietnam-era veterans and their families.

By the late 1970s, it was clear the established veterans groups had failed to make a priority of the issues of concern to Vietnam veterans. As a result, a vacuum existed within the nation’s legislative and public agenda. In January 1978, a small group of Vietnam veteran activists came to Washington, D.C., searching for allies to support the creation of an advocacy organization devoted exclusively to the needs of Vietnam veterans. VVA, initially known as the Council of Vietnam Veterans, began its work. At the end of its first year of operation in 1979, the total assets were $46,506.

Council members believed that if the nation’s attention was focused on the specific needs of Vietnam veterans, a grateful nation would quickly take remedial steps. However, despite persuasive arguments before Congress, which were amplified by highly supportive editorials printed in many leading American newspapers, they failed to win even a single legislative victory to bring new and needed programs into creation to help Vietnam veterans and their families.

It soon became apparent that arguments couched simply in terms of morality, equity, and justice were not enough. The U.S. Congress would respond to the legitimate needs of Vietnam veterans only if the organization professing to represent them had political strength. In this case, strength translated into numbers which meant membership. By the summer of 1979, the Council of Vietnam Veterans had transformed into Vietnam Veterans of America, a veterans service organization made up of, and devoted to, Vietnam veterans.

Hindered by the lack of substantial funding for development, the growth of membership was at first slow. The big breakthrough came when the American hostages were returned from Iran in January 1981. It was as if America went through an emotional catharsis that put the issues of the Vietnam era on the table for public discussion. The question was asked why parades for the hostages but not for Vietnam veterans? Many veterans complained about the lack of recognition and appreciation for past national service. Vietnam-era veterans wanted action in the form of programs that would place the latest generation of veterans on the same footing as veterans from previous wars.

Membership grew steadily, and for the first time, VVA secured significant contributions. The combination of the public’s willingness to talk about the Vietnam War and the basic issues that it raised, as well as the veterans themselves coming forward, was augmented by the nation’s dedication of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in November 1982. The week-long activities rekindled a sense of brotherhood among the veterans and a feeling that they shared an experience that was too significant to ignore.

In 1983, VVA took a significant step by founding Vietnam Veterans of America Legal Services (VVALS) to provide assistance to veterans seeking benefits and services from the government. By working under the theory that a veteran representative should be an advocate for the veteran rather than simply a facilitator, VVALS quickly established itself as the most competent and aggressive legal-assistance program available to veterans. VVALS published the most comprehensive manual ever developed for veteran service representatives, and in 1985, VVALS wrote the widely acclaimed Viet Vet Survival Guide. In the nineties, VVALS evolved into the current VVA Service Representative program.

The next several years saw VVA grow in size, stature, and prestige. VVA’s professional membership services, veterans service, and advocacy work gained the respect of Congress and the veterans community. In 1986, VVA’s exemplary work was formally acknowledged by the granting of a congressional charter.

Today, Vietnam Veterans of America has a national membership of over 85,000, with over 650 chapters throughout the United States, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam and the Philippines. VVA state councils coordinate the activities of local chapters. VVA places great emphasis on coordinating its national activities and programs with the work of its local chapters and state councils and is organized to ensure that victories gained at the national level are implemented locally.

VVA strives for individual and group empowerment and locally originated action to assist veterans and other needy members of their communities. These volunteer programs offer unique and innovative services to an ever-widening population. They include: support for homeless shelters substance-abuse education projects and crime-prevention campaigns sponsorship of youth sports, Boy Scouts/Girl Scouts, Big Brothers/Big Sisters and relief to other communities affected by natural disasters and chronic poverty.

VVA is governed by a national board of directors and by national officers — 24 women and men democratically elected by VVA delegates, are sent by their respective chapters to biennial conventions. VVA’s essential purpose is to promote the educational, economic, health, cultural, and emotional readjustment of the Vietnam-era veteran to civilian life. This is done by promoting legislation and public-awareness programs to eliminate discrimination suffered by Vietnam veterans.

VVA’s government-relations efforts combine the three ingredients essential to success in the legislative arena — lobbying, mobilizing constituents, and working with the media — to achieve its ambitious agenda. Legislative victories have included the establishment and extension of the Vet Center system, passage of laws providing for increased job-training and job-placement assistance for unemployed and underemployed Vietnam-era veterans, the first laws assisting veterans suffering from Agent Orange exposure, and landmark legislation (i.e., Judicial Review of veterans claims) permitting veterans to challenge adverse VA decisions in court. All were enacted largely as a result of VVA’s legislative efforts.

VVA helps to provide greater public awareness of the outstanding issues surrounding Vietnam-era veterans by disseminating written information on a continual basis through a weekly electronic publication. The VVA Veteran ®, VVA’s award-winning newspaper, is mailed to all VVA members and friends of the organization. In addition, self-help guides on issues such as Agent Orange and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder are published and made available to anyone interested.


55. The Vietnam War


These young soldiers were members of the U.S. 1st Air Cavalry. This picture was taken in 1965, during the first military engagements between U.S. and North Vietnamese ground forces.

The Vietnam War was the second-longest war in United States history, after the war in Afghanistan.

Promises and commitments to the people and government of South Vietnam to keep communist forces from overtaking them reached back into the Truman Administration. Eisenhower placed military advisers and CIA operatives in Vietnam, and John F. Kennedy sent American soldiers to Vietnam. Lyndon Johnson ordered the first real combat by American troops, and Richard Nixon concluded the war.

Despite the decades of resolve, billions and billions of dollars, nearly 60,000 American lives and many more injuries, the United States failed to achieve its objectives.

One factor that influenced the failure of the United States in Vietnam was lack of public support. However, the notion that the war initially was prosecuted by the government against the wishes of the American people is false. The notion that the vast majority of American youths took to the streets to end the Vietnam War is equally false. Early initiatives by the United States under Truman, Eisenhower, and Kennedy received broad support.

Only two members of the United States Congress voted against granting Johnson broad authority to wage the war in Vietnam, and most Americans supported this measure as well. The antiwar movement in 1965 was small, and news of its activities was buried in the inner pages of newspapers, if there was any mention at all. Only later in the war did public opinion sour.

The enemy was hard to identify. The war was not fought between conventional army forces. The Viet Cong blended in with the native population and struck by ambush, often at night. Massive American bombing campaigns hit their targets, but failed to make the North Vietnamese concede. Promises made by American military and political leaders that the war would soon be over were broken.

And night after night, Americans turned on the news to see the bodies of their young flown home in bags. Draft injustices like college deferments surfaced, hearkening back to the similar controversies of the Civil War. The average age of the American soldier in Vietnam was nineteen. As the months of the war became years, the public became impatient.

Only a small percentage of Americans believed their government was evil or sympathized with the Viet Cong. But many began to feel it was time to cut losses. Even the iconic CBS newscaster Walter Cronkite questioned aloud the efficacy of pursuing the war.

President Nixon signed a ceasefire in January 1973 that formally ended the hostilities. In 1975, communist forces from the north overran the south and unified the nation. Neighboring Cambodia and Laos also became communist dictatorships. At home, returning Vietnamese veterans found readjustment and even acceptance difficult. The scars of Vietnam would not heal quickly for the United States.

The legacy of bitterness divided the American citizenry and influenced foreign policy into the 21st century.


Relief

Vietnam’s principal physiographic features are the Annamese Cordillera (French: Chaîne Annamitique Vietnamese: Nui Truong Son), extending generally from northwest to southeast in central Vietnam and dominating the interior, and two extensive alluvial deltas formed by the Red (Hong) River in the north and the Mekong (Cuu Long) River in the south. Between these two deltas is a long, relatively narrow coastal plain.

From north to south the uplands of northern Vietnam can be divided into two distinct regions—the area north of the Red River and the massif that extends south of the Red River into neighbouring Laos. The Red River forms a deep, relatively wide valley that runs in a straight northwest-southeast direction for much of its course from the Chinese border to the edge of its delta. North of the Red River the relief is moderate, with the highest elevations occurring between the Red and Lo (Clear) rivers there is a marked depression from Cao Bang to the sea. In the Red River delta and in the valleys of the region’s other major rivers are found wide limestone terraces, extensive alluvial plains, and low hills. The northeast coast is dotted with hundreds of islands composed mostly of limestone.

Compared with the area north of the Red River, the vast massif extending southwest across Laos to the Mekong River is of considerably higher elevation. Among its outstanding topographic features is Fan Si Peak, which at 10,312 feet (3,143 metres) is the highest point in Vietnam. South of the Black (Da) River are the Ta P’ing, Son La, and Moc Chau plateaus, which are separated by deep valleys.

In central Vietnam the Annamese Cordillera runs parallel to the coast, with several peaks rising to elevations above 6,000 feet (1,800 metres). Several spurs jut into the South China Sea, forming sections of the coast isolated from one another. Communication across the central ranges is difficult. The southern portion of the Annamese Cordillera has two identifiable regions. One consists of plateaus of approximately 1,700 feet (520 metres) in elevation that have experienced little erosion, as in the Dac Lac Plateau near Buon Me Thuot. The second region is characterized by heavily eroded plateaus: in the vicinity of Pleiku, the Kontum Plateau is about 2,500 feet (760 metres) above sea level and in the Da Lat area, the Di Linh Plateau is about 4,900 feet (1,500 metres).


M1967 Individual Load-Carrying Equipment

The M1967 Individual Load Carrying Equipment (called Modernized Load Carrying Equipment MLCE) did not differ much from the M1956 Lightweight Load-Carrying Equipment, and did not immediately replace it since all items were interchangable. The crucial change was that the M1967 equipment used new matierals:

  • nylon replaced all remaining cotton webbing items
  • aluminum or plastic replaced steel or brass hardware, where possible
  • "Hook and Pile" fasteners (Velcro) were used wherever practical to replace zippers or snaps

On the equipment belt, the classic metal tab closure was replaced by the black metal, quick release "Davis buckle". Ammo pouches also got a plastic clip fastener and were made shorter to match the 5.56mm ammunition clips for the M16 rifle. The M1967 nylon intrenching tool cover with plastic clip fastener was provided for the new tri-fold tool. The back pack and other components had small improvements and changes in addition to the changes in materials. The First Aid Case/Compass Pouch was styled the same as the M-1956 with the same keeper and snap but made of nylon (NSN 8465-00-935-6814). This form was carried forward unchanged to become the LC-1 Alice pouch and was still being procured in 2005. [Thanks to Jarkko Lahtinen for help with this section.]


Christianity in Vietnam

The first Catholic missionaries visited Vietnam from Portugal at the beginning of the 16th century. The earliest missions did not bring very impressive results. Only after the arrival of Jesuits in the first decades of the 17th century did Christianity begin to establish its positions within the local population. Between 1627 and 1630, Fathers Alexander de Rhodes and Antoine Marquez of the French Province converted over 6,000.

The French missionary priest and Bishop of Adran Pigneau de Behaine ( Vietnamese: Bá Đa Lộc) played a key role

in Vietnamese history towards the end of the 18th century. He had come to southern Vietnam to proselytise. In 1777, the Tay Son brothers killed the ruling Nguyen lords, and Nguyen Anh was the youngest member of the family to have survived, and he fled into the Mekong Delta region in the far south, where he met Bishop Pigneau who became his confidant. Bishop Pigneau hoped that by playing a substantial role in a Nguyen Anh victory, he would be in position to lever important concessions for the Catholic Church in Vietnam, helping its expansion in South East Asia. From then on he became a politician and military strategist. At one stage during the civil war, the Nguyen were in trouble, so Bishop Pigneau was dispatched to seek French aid. He was able to recruit a band of French volunteers. Bishop Pigneau and other missionaries acted as business agents for Nguyen Anh, purchasing munitions and other military supplies. Bishop Pigneau also served as a military advisor and de facto foreign minister until his death in 1799. From 1794, Bishop Pigneau took part in all campaigns. He organized the defense of Dien Khanh when it was besieged by a vastly superior Tay Son army in 1794. Upon Bishop Pigneau's death, Gia Long's funeral oration described the Frenchman as "the most illustrious foreigner ever to appear at the court of Cochinchina".

Early Nguyen Dynasty

By 1802, when Nguyen Anh conquered all of Vietnam and declared himself Emperor Gia Long, the Roman Catholic Church in Vietnam had 3 dioceses:

Diocese of Eastern North Vietnam: 140,000 members, 41 Vietnamese priests, 4 missionary priests and 1 bishop.

Diocese of Western North Vietnam: 120,000 members, 65 Vietnamese priests, 46 missionary priests and 1 bishop.

Diocese of Central and South Vietnam: 60,000 members, 15 Vietnamese priests, 5 missionary priests and 1 bishop.

Gia Long tolerated the Catholic faith of his French allies and permitted unimpeded missionary activities out of respect to his benefactors. The missionary activity was dominated by the Spanish in Tonkin and French in the central and southern regions. At the time of his death, there were six European bishops in Vietnam. The population of Christians was estimated at 300,000 in Tonkin and 60,000 in Cochinchina.

Later Nguyen Dynasty

The peaceful coexistence of Catholicism alongside the classical Confucian system of Vietnam was not to last. Gia Long himself was Confucian in outlook. As Crown Prince Nguyen Phuc Canh had already died, it was assumed that Canh's son would succeed Gia Long as emperor, but in 1816 Nguyen Phuc Dam, the son of Gia Long's second wife, was appointed instead. Gia Long chose him for his strong character and his deeply conservative aversion to westerners, whereas Canh's lineage had converted to Catholicism and were reluctant to maintain their Confucian traditions such as ancestor worship.

Lê Văn Duyệt and many of the high-ranking mandarins opposed Gia Long's succession plan. Lê Văn Duyệt and

many of his southern associates tended to be favourable to Christianity, and supported the installation of Nguyen Canh's descendants on the throne. As a result, Lê Văn Duyệt was held in high regard by the Catholic community. According to the historian Mark McLeod, Duyệt was more concerned with military rather than social needs, and was thus more interested in maintaining strong relations with Europeans so that he could acquire weapons from them, rather than worrying about the social implications of westernization. Gia Long was aware of the fact that Catholic clergy were opposed to the installation of Minh Mang because they favoured a Catholic monarch (Canh's son) that would grant them favors. Minh Mang began to place restrictions on Catholicism. He enacted "edicts of interdiction of the Catholic religion" and condemned Christianity as a "heterodox doctrine". He saw the Catholics as a possible source of division, especially as the missionaries were arriving in Vietnam in ever-increasing numbers. Duyet protected Vietnamese Catholic converts and westerners from Minh Mang's policies by disobeying the emperor’s orders.

Minh Mang issued an imperial edict, that ordered missionaries to leave their areas and move to the imperial city, ostensibly because the palace needed translators, but in order to stop the Catholics from proselytizing. Whereas the government officials in central and northern Vietnam complied, Duyet disobeyed the order and Minh Mang was forced to bide his time. The emperor began to slowly wind back the military powers of Duyet, and increased this after his death.

Minh Mang ordered the posthumous humiliation of Duyet. This resulted in the desecration of his tomb, the execution of sixteen relatives, and the arrests of his colleagues.

Duyệt's son Le Van Khoi, along with the southerners who had seen their and Duyệt's power curtailed, revolted against Minh Mang. Khoi declared himself in favour of the restoration of the line of Prince Canh. This choice was designed to obtain the support of Catholic missionaries and Vietnamese Catholics, who had been supporting the Catholic line of Prince Canh. Le Van Khoi further promised to protect Catholicism.

In 1833, the rebels took over southern Vietnam, with Catholics playing a large role. 2,000 Vietnamese Catholic troops fought under the command of Father Nguyen Van Tam.

The rebellion was suppressed after three years of fighting. The French missionary Father Joseph Marchand, of the Paris Foreign Missions Society was captured in the siege, and had been supporting Khoi, and asked for the help of the Siamese army, through communications to his counterpart in Siam, Father Taberd. This revealed the strong Catholic involvement in the revolt. Father Marchand was executed.

The failure of the revolt had a disastrous effect on the Christians of Vietnam. New restrictions against Christians followed, and demands were made to find and execute remaining missionaries. Anti-Catholic edicts to this effect were issued by Minh Mang in 1836 and 1838. In 1836-1837 six missionaries were executed: Ignacio Delgado, Dominico Henares, Jean-Charles Cornay, José Fernández, François Jaccard, and Bishop Pierre Borie.

The Church Today

After the persecution had ended and the rise of Catholics to power during the turbulent 1960s, the Catholic population rose to near 6%[1]. After the Vietnam War ended, the population still rose despite a large number of Catholic escaped abroad. Today, even with the lack of financial support and religious tolerance, Catholism in Vietnam is still growing along with the world's Catholic population, which has reached 1.147 billion[3]. Pope Benedict XVI created another diocese in southern Vietnam[2].


Vietnam Website - History

Welcome to the Vietnam Veterans for Factual History website. Our mission is to provide facts from professional historians, eyewitnesses, and participants in the Vietnam War to correct the historical record of the War wherever that correction is warranted.

As veterans, many of whom who served in the conflict and have remained very conscious of its history, we have become concerned that the 1978 prediction of Guenter Lewy has proven to be all too accurate. 35 years ago he wrote “Mythology, half-truth and falsehood concerning events in Vietnam abound and, unless corrected, will enter the textbooks for the mis-education of our children.”

His prediction has proven to be all too accurate, and far too much of the literature about the war has been filled with exaggerations, inaccuracies, opinions presented as facts, and sometimes simple falsehoods. In recent years, historians, many of them being veterans of the Vietnam war, have written more accurately about the war’s events. The newer work is often done with information gathered from the records of the communist protagonists, and these contributors are referred to as “revisionists”. This is in contrast to the early and still prevalent writings in academia, originally by professors who had been part of the antiwar movement and now by a newer generation trained by those predecessors.

We started out as a group of veterans, historians, and other interested parties who came together recently in reaction to conferences dominated by those with clear antiwar biases. We have committed ourselves to set the record straight, with very factual approaches to those historical events. However this project is more than open to anyone for whom publishing the true history of the war in SE Asia is important. First among them would be the surviving Vietnamese who fought and suffered for their country – then those Americans who served outside of South Viet Nam’s borders, or who were involved as diplomats, reporters, civil servants, or in any other capacity during that time, or those younger people who find this history of great interest all are eagerly welcomed to this alliance. All are encouraged to bring their knowledge and experience of the history to light, as well as whatever questions they have or suggestions to help in fulfilling our mission. United we are bound to achieve more in serving this good cause.



Komentari:

  1. Tojagar

    U njemu je nešto. Sada je sve postalo jasno, puno hvala na pomoći po ovom pitanju.

  2. Tar

    Prilično tačno! Čini mi se da je to jako dobra ideja. U potpunosti se slažem sa tobom.

  3. Jamian

    I'm sure this is not true.

  4. Shelton

    Rather valuable message

  5. Hererinc

    Vidimo se na sajtu!

  6. Vora

    Kompetentna poruka :)

  7. Okpara

    Sigurno imate pravo



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