Stroj za češljanje

Stroj za češljanje


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Izum Spinning Jenny i Spinning Frame -a uzrokovao je povećanje potražnje za kartonima. Godine 1748. Lewis Paul je izumio mašinu za češljanje s ručnim pogonom. Uređaj je uključivao karticu prekrivenu žicom koja je postavljena oko cilindra. Richard Arkwright je napravio poboljšanja u ovoj mašini i 1775. godine uzeo patent za novi Carding Engine. Arkwrightova mašina je uključivala cilindrični motor za kardiranje sa ručicom i mehanizmom češlja. Češalj se kretao gore -dolje, uklanjajući mikana vlakna sa valjkastog cilindra u "kontinuiranom filcanom runu".

Patent za kartiranje Lewisa Paula datira 30. avgusta 1748. Kopiju koju sam, sa crtežima, dobio od Zavoda za patente. Mašina je imala vodoravni cilindar, prekriven po cijelom obodu paralelnim nizovima karata, s međuprostorima, i okrenuta ručkom.

Jedno od prvih poboljšanja napravljenih u mašini za češljanje bilo je pričvršćivanje stalne odbojne krpe, nazvane hranilica, na koju se razmazala određena težina vate i kojom se prenosila do cilindra. Ovo je izumio 1772. godine John Lees, kveker iz Manchestera.

Kada je Arkwright izvadio patent za mašinu za češljanje, u nju je uključio i mašine za crtanje i roving. Sastoji se u izvlačenju kartiranja valjcima, a zatim udvostručavanju i udvostručavanju komadića, koji se nazivaju krajevima, kako bi ih se vratilo na gotovo istu tvar kao u početku.

Motor za kardiranje nije izumio odjednom, niti bilo koji pojedinac, već je bio rezultat niza poboljšanja, napravljenih u različito vrijeme, i od strane različitih osoba. U ovoj mašini drveni cilindar, prekriven kartama, okreće se na vodoravnoj osi, odmah se okreće ispod konkavnog poklopca; poklopac je takođe obložen karticama, a zubi kartica na cilindru i onih na poklopcu su skoro u kontaktu.

U početku se pamuk razmazivao po cilindru, a cilindar je svojim okretajima čekao pamuk prema zubima na poklopcu: pamuk je zatim skinut s cilindra ručnim karticama koje su se držale uz njega. Poslije je postignuto veliko poboljšanje dodavanjem drugog cilindra, koji je pamuk skinuo s prvog onoliko brzo koliko je mikljan, i valjka, uzdužno naboranog, okrećući se na vodoravnoj osi, pritisnutog uz ovaj drugi cilindar i otrgnuo glodano pamuk u prugama.


Mašina za češljanje - povijest

Pennsylvania USGenWeb Archives

Clearfield County Pennsylvania

Clearfield County Pennsylvania

Prepisao za PAGenWeb projekat okruga Clearfield autor

JASNA ŽUPANIJA - SADAŠNJOST I PROŠLOST


Svjetlo i moć. Od svih otkrića koja su dodala udobnost, udobnost i luksuz u našoj županiji, upotreba električne energije vjerojatno je najdivnija.


Godine 1925. Penn Public Service Company, koja isporučuje većinu naše električne energije, ima kapacitet za opskrbu dvadeset pet hiljada kilovata struje, što je jednako trideset tri hiljade konjskih snaga, ili jednako trideset osam miliona svijeća električne energije . To se prenosi dvjesto šest kilometara dalekovoda do sedamdeset i četiri grada, do dvjesto četrdeset radova, do dvjesto tri rudnika i do dvjesto devedeset i četiri farme u okrugu.


Osim električnog osvjetljenja, u velikom broju domova u gradovima, a poprilično i u zemlji, pranje, peglanje, čišćenje, pa čak i pranje posuđa, a dio kuhanja obavlja se i električnom energijom. Elektromotor se sada koristi za obavljanje svih vrsta poslova, od pokretanja šivaće mašine ili automatskog pumpanja vode za domaćinstvo, do snabdijevanja strujom za mlin ili tvornicu. Ipak, moramo se sjetiti da su se svi ti uređaji za uštedu radne snage lako počeli koristiti u okrugu Clearfield u sjećanju prilično mladih ljudi.


Vjerojatno 1880. godine u okrugu nije bilo niti jednog električnog svjetla, a čak je i 1890. godine električno osvjetljenje bilo uključeno

JASNA ŽUPANIJA - SADAŠNJOST I PROŠLOST


novčano kažnjeni na veće gradove, a nikako univerzalni u njima. Do 1912. postao je općenitija upotreba u gradovima.


Potražnja za ugljem za vrijeme Svjetskog rata bila je vjerovatno najveći poticaj za korištenje električne energije, kako za svjetlo tako i za napajanje. Mora se zapamtiti da bi proizvodnja kakva se sada odvijala bila nemoguća da nije bilo nekog izvora energije, bilo goriva poput ugljena ili nafte, bilo vode. Čak se i električna energija mora proizvoditi. Bilo je relativno lako izgraditi dalekovod do rudnika i brzo ga opskrbiti svjetlom i energijom. Kako su ti vodovi dovodili električnu energiju nadohvat malih zajednica i farmi, bilo je jednostavno nabaviti struju za osvjetljenje i napajanje domaćinstava i farmi, tako da sada postoji samo nekoliko lokaliteta u naseljenim dijelovima županije koji nisu tako isporučeno. Gotovo sva energija koja se koristi za proizvodnju električne energije u okrugu Clearfield opskrbljuje se parnim strojevima.


Plin, benzin i kerozin. Prije nego što je električno osvjetljenje postalo opće ili čak moguće, umjetno, ili u nekim dijelovima, prirodni plin se koristio za osvjetljavanje, a donekle i za grijanje i kuhanje. U ove posljednje svrhe sve se više koristi u velikim gradovima. Takođe je postojala ograničena količina osvjetljenja benzinskim plinom, acetilenom ili karbidom. Karbid se još uvijek koristi u malim rudnicima i na nekoliko farmi. Ova sredstva kućne rasvjete uglavnom su bila ograničena na gradove.


Benzinski i petrolejski motori pružaju veliku snagu na farmama, a naravno benzin snabdijeva gorivom gotovo svih naših dvanaest hiljada automobila i više od hiljadu tristo kamiona.


Kerozinske lampe. Veliki broj poljoprivrednika i drugi, uglavnom oni koji su nedostupni električnoj struji i dalje koriste petrolejke. Zaista, to nije izvan sjećanja starijih ljudi kada su čak bili luksuz, a petrolej se koristio samo kao obloga za reumu, itd.

JASNA ŽUPANIJA - SADAŠNJOST I PROŠLOST


Tallow Candles. Dugi niz godina, vjerojatno od 1830. do 1870. godine, loje svijeće, oblikovane ili umočene, bile su standard za svjetlo u okrugu. Ima živih ljudi koji mogu reći o vremenu kada se smatralo ekstravagantnim paljenje više od jedne svijeće neprekidno tokom večeri, pa su svi poslovi koji su se obavljali u domaćinstvu nakon mraka morali biti obavljeni uz svjetlost ove svijeće, oko koje je porodica okupila, uključujući i djecu da uče svoje lekcije. Ali prije pojave svijeće, i manje-više godinama nakon toga, korištene su "lampa za podmazivanje" i "lampa za čamce", ili su se ljudi slagali sa svjetlom iz kamina ili od mrvice bora zabijene u pukotinu u dimnjaku.


Uređaji za uštedu rada. Čini se da se u prvim danima nije mnogo razmišljalo o metodama za uštedu radne snage, zapravo svako ko je koristio bilo koja neobična sredstva za to smatrao se pomalo lijenim, a htjeti izaći s posla bio je gotovo grijeh!


Možda idemo u drugu krajnost pokušavajući izbjeći pravi posao.


Godinama nakon prvog naseljavanja u županiji nije bilo pumpe. Voda se obično izvlačila uzbrdo s izvora ili izvlačila iz bunara užetom ručno ili najviše & quot -zamahom. & Quot Sada se voda u gradu opskrbljuje vodovodnim sustavom ili automatskom električnom pumpom. Potonji se koristi na nekim farmama.


Hidraulični ovnovi. Hidraulični ovan je koristilo nekoliko poljoprivrednika nakon otprilike 1850. godine za dovođenje vode iz izvora do kuće, gdje je protok vode bio dovoljno jak da može funkcionirati.


Ovaj "ovan za udaranje", kako je dobio nadimak zbog buke koju je stvarao tokom rada, doveo je do isprekidanog toka vode koristeći protočni tok kako bi osigurao

JASNA ŽUPANIJA - SADAŠNJOST I PROŠLOST


moć da natjera malu količinu vode na viši nivo.

Ovi ovnovi nikada nisu bili zadovoljavajući, ali su bili korak u smjeru poboljšanog vodnog sistema.


Dugujemo mnogo prošlosti. A sada kada smo sretni i živimo u tako divnom dobu udobnosti, pogodnosti, pa čak i luksuza za sve naše ljude, kako bismo trebali nastojati biti vrijedni svega toga i cijeniti mnoge prednosti koje imamo pred pionirima koji su radili tako je teško našu županiju učiniti prikladnim mjestom za život.


Izrada cigle. Izrada vatrene opeke i drugih vrsta opeke vjerojatno je najveća prerađivačka industrija u našoj županiji u današnje vrijeme. Činjenica da proizvođači željeza i čelika ovise o vatrostalnoj opeci za oblaganje svojih peći i kupola te da okrug Clearfield ima neke od najboljih nalazišta vatrene gline na svijetu, dva su najbolja moguća razloga za aktivnost požara ciglana u županiji. Proizvođači stakla takođe moraju imati vatrenu glinu od koje će napraviti lonce u kojima se staklo topi.


Vatrena glina je prvi put otkrivena u okrugu Clearfield početkom 60-ih, prva cigla proizvedena je u pogonu Hope u Woodlandu 1867. Nakon toga su uslijedili radovi u Donjoj šumi 1868. Kompanija Harbison-Walker Refractories kasnije je preuzela ove pogone, sada u okrugu Clearfield ima sedam pogona s dnevnom proizvodnjom od oko tristo tisuća opeka, koji zapošljavaju približno tisuću ljudi. Osim toga, zapošljavaju četiri stotine do četiri stotine dvadeset pet ljudi u rudarstvu i pripremi gline i ugljena za ove pogone.


Fabrike vatrostalnih materijala Harbison-Walker nalaze se i puštene su u rad na sljedeći način: Hope works, Woodland, 1867 Lower Works, Woodland, 1868 Wallaceton, 1879 Wigton, 1893 Widemire, 1896 Clearfield No. 1 Works, 1899

JASNA ŽUPANIJA - SADAŠNJOST I PROŠLOST


Clearfield No. 2 Works, 1900. Za izradu tisuću cigli potrebno je oko četiri tone gline, a za njihovo sagorijevanje potroši se otprilike jedna i pol tona ugljena, stoga tvrtka Harbison-Walker Refractories u okrugu Clearfield koristi približno 350.000 tona gline i 125.000 tona ugljena godišnje, a sve to vadi kompanija ili pojedinačno u okrugu Clearfield.


Za transport dnevne proizvodnje ovih postrojenja bilo bi potrebno trideset vagona svaki dan.


Pogon kompanije General Refractories Company u Blue Ball -u prvobitno je sagradio 1899. godine Wm. H. Wynn, njegov sin D. Ross Wynn i njegov zet, James H. France. Bilo je oko četiri peći, a izlaz je bio upola manji od sadašnje. Spaljeno je 1904., ali je obnovljeno 1905. Godine 1910. kompanija za opće vatrostalne materijale kupila je pogon, preuredila ga i izgradila ono što se koristilo kao odjel parne preše, pri čemu se ovdje ranije proizvodila samo ručna opeka. To je učinjeno oko 1916-17.


Sada postoji dvadeset i jedna peć, prosječno je zaposleno 150 ljudi, a proizvodnja je 56.000 cigli dnevno.


Za izradu 1000 cigli potrebno je oko četiri tone gline i oko 1,18 tona uglja za njihovo sagorijevanje.


Godišnja proizvodnja je 16.500.000 vatrogasnih opeka, a za njihovu proizvodnju koristi se 66.000 tona gline i 27.500 tona uglja.


U županiji, na različitim mjestima, rade i brojne druge tvornice cigle.


Rad u niklu. Američka korporacija za nikal ima veliku tvornicu u Hyde Cityju, u blizini Clearfielda. Dionice ove korporacije su u vlasništvu Mond Nickel Company, Ltd., iz Londona, Engleska, koja isporučuje sav nikl koji se koristi u američkoj fabrici, iz svoje rafinerije u Clydachu u Walesu. Mond Company je najveći proizvođač čistog nikla u svijetu. Američkoj kompaniji isporučuje nikal rafiniran iz rude u obliku peleta, poput sačme, u rasponu

JASNA ŽUPANIJA - SADAŠNJOST I PROŠLOST


je [sic] veličine od jedne četvrtine inča u promjeru do vrlo malih peleta, a također u obliku soli, koje se uglavnom koriste u industriji oplata. Za ovaj metal se tvrdi da je devedeset devet posto čistog nikla.


Oprema Američke korporacije za nikal u Hyde Cityju po svemu je slična onoj u prosječnoj čeličani, ali složenija i potpunija. Postoje peći, i to otvorenog ognjišta za izradu ingota ili svinja, i druge za žarenje ili kaljenje, lijevanje i zavarivanje, hladne i vruće role za izradu limova potrebne širine i debljine, te okrugle i kvadratne šipke, i mašine za izvlačenje žice i bešavnih cijevi, osim škara i druge opreme te prirode. Nikl se može valjati fino kao obična limena folija i može se uvući u žicu ne veću od ljudske kose.


Otvorene peći su dvije, kapaciteta 2.000 tona svaka, a peći za žarenje i zavarivanje odgovarajućeg su kapaciteta kako bi mogle pratiti posao brige o ovom proizvodu. Sve peći se lože na naftu, s električnim automatskim upravljanjem grijanjem, regulirajući protok ulja i zraka, koji ih održava ravnomjerno na željenoj temperaturi. Indikator konstantno bilježi protok i temperaturu, tako da se sve promjene mogu odmah otkriti. Role su također električno opremljene, pokreću ih elektromotori, od kojih se najveći (800 konjskih snaga) sada instalira. Kad se završe poboljšanja i dodaci koji se sada razmatraju, ova tvornica očekuje da će imati priključeno opterećenje od 2500 konjskih snaga.


Fabrika Hyde City, otkad ju je preuzela kompanija Mond, prije otprilike godinu i po dana, u procesu je proširenja i poboljšanja. Stare zgrade, koje su bile od limene konstrukcije, u potpunosti su ozidane i podignute nove zgrade, dok je oprema dodavana i modernizirana do trenutka kada postojeći planovi budu

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je ovo jedna od najboljih biljaka u cijeloj zemlji, ako ne i u svijetu.


Osim odjela mlina, postoji i velika i potpuno opremljena ljevaonica, jer kompanija proizvodi veliki broj odljevaka, velikih i malih. Ispostavilo se da je velika količina gotovih proizvoda strojeva potrebno dobro opremljeno strojno odjeljenje sa strugovima, rendisaljkama, bušilicama, polirkama i drugim strojevima potrebnim za ovu klasu rada.


Kotlovnica ima osam kotlova snage 250 konjskih snaga, a rezervoar od 110.000 galona isporučuje vodu za pogon. Kotlovi isporučuju paru za dva motora koji pokreću dio opreme strojarnice, a također i za grijanje svih dijelova postrojenja. Za zaštitu radnika koriste se najsavremeniji sigurnosni uređaji. Tu je velika i dobro opremljena soba za odmor i toalet, sa mogućnostima pranja i tuš kadama sa toplom i hladnom vodom, te ormarićima za odjeću i ličnu imovinu. Trenutno ima oko 250 zaposlenih.


Uopšteno govoreći, proizvod biljke je materijal u različitim oblicima za potrebe proizvodnje. To dolazi u listovima i pločama, u šipkama i šipkama, u bešavnim i zavarenim cijevima, u žici i u odljevcima. Proizvedeni limovi i tanjuri uvelike se koriste u proizvodnji kuhinjskog i stolnog posuđa, a tvrdi se da je to najfiniji metal koji postoji u tu svrhu, jer se može lako prilagoditi za posude za kuhanje, lonce, tave, tave , pečenjare itd., te za vrčeve, zdjele i ostalo stono posuđe, otporno na hrđu i koroziju, s jedne strane, i sposobno za najfinije lakove, bez dispozicije za potamnjivanje, s druge strane. Podnijet će djelovanje kiselina u namirnicama svih vrsta, pa je stoga vrijedan divljenja u tu svrhu. Brojni koncerni koji se bave proizvodnjom kuhinjskog i stolnog posuđa od nikla osiguravaju opskrbu materijalom od American Nickel Corporation.

JASNA ŽUPANIJA - SADAŠNJOST I PROŠLOST


Velika količina metala prodana je Vladi Sjedinjenih Država za upotrebu u plovilima i brodogradilištima. Vlada ga traži i koristi zbog svoje sposobnosti da se odupre bilo kakvoj koroziji ili hrđi od djelovanja slane vode. Vlada kupuje štapove, žicu i oblike raznih vrsta.


Žica različite debljine, od tri osmine inča u promjeru, pa do najfinije, vuče se u pogonu i koristi se u mnoge svrhe, od kojih je jedna od glavnih izrada automobilskih svjećica, a angažirano je nekoliko firmi u ovoj grani proizvodnje su kupci pogona Hyde City.


U ovoj fabrici se proizvode i male i velike cijevi, koje se vuku hladno, u bešavnom obliku, ili valjaju u vrpce, a zatim oblikuju i zavaruju. Veći dio ovih cijevi koristi se u proizvodnji aparata za gašenje požara i u proizvodnji mliječnih mašina, gdje se lako može uvidjeti prednost njegovih svojstava koja ne nagrizaju i hrđaju. Ostali važniji proizvodi ove biljke su anode koje se koriste u električnim oplatama i drugi odljevci u livnicama, strojno obrađeni i nedovršeni, sjedala ventila, platnena platna, žica i vrpce radio sabirnica, vijci i matice s navojem, hardverski i vodovodni namještaj.


Kancelarije, laboratorije i odjeli za ispitivanje, svi moderno uređeni, u svakoj pojedinosti, smješteni su u dvokatnoj strukturi koja se nalazi pored zgrada tvornice.


Izrada mašina za pletenje i pletenje. Jedna od vodećih industrija okruga Clearfield je Gearhart Knitting Machine Company, čija je djelatnost proizvodnja strojeva za ručno pletenje. Postrojenje se nalazi u Clearfieldu, na zapadnoj strani. Posao je organizirao J. E. Gearhart 1888. godine, a tada se nalazio u West Decatur (Blue Ball). Patenti na mašini su osigurani, a proizvodnja mašina nastavljena je dvije godine. Druge godine posao je zahtijevao postojanje Expressa

JASNA ŽUPANIJA - SADAŠNJOST I PROŠLOST


Ured u Blue Ball -u i kompanija Adams Express otvorili su ured.


Posao je počeo rasti i bilo je potrebno veće mjesto za nastavak poslovanja, pa je 1890. izgrađena tvornica u Clearfieldu, sadašnjoj lokaciji, na koju su se preselili porodica Gearhart i posao.


Mašina se povremeno poboljšavala, proizvodila i prodavala u svim zemljama. Utvrđeno je da je potrebno izgraditi dodatke tvornici u različito vrijeme.


Tokom rata za mašinama je bila velika potražnja za pletenje čarapa za vojnike, a napravljene su i sve mašine za koje je kompanija mogla nabaviti materijal.


Kompanija je 1921. godine osnovana prema državnim zakonima. Tri sina gospodina Gearharta, John R., Leonard A. i Emory J. Gearhart stječu dionice. Sljedeće godine izgrađena je nova trokatna tvornica, 38 x 100 stopa kojoj je dodana godinu dana kasnije, poslovna zgrada, tri kata, 40 x 60 stopa. U ovom trenutku, 1925., podiže se još jedna velika četverokatnica kako bi se nastavilo i vodilo računa o poslu.


Osim proizvodnih strojeva, veliki dio posla je zapošljavanje domaćih pletilja diljem zemlje, koji kod kuće & pojačavaju čarape i vraćaju ih tvrtki koja ih prodaje.


Postoji više od pet hiljada pletilja koji na ovaj način imaju zaposlenje. Količina čarapa tako primljenih i odloženih postala je ogromna. Kompanija trenutno zapošljava 140 žena i 50 muškaraca.


To je posao naručivanja poštom, a količina poslane pošte čini neophodnim da Uprava pošta SAD -a održava poštansko odjeljenje u tvornici.


Prošle godine, nakon trideset šest godina neprekidnog poslovanja, začetnik, J. E. Gearhart, povukao se iz firme. Njegova tri sina, drugi članovi firme, preuzimaju ga.

JASNA ŽUPANIJA - SADAŠNJOST I PROŠLOST


Izrada keramike. Prvu keramičku ili "quotpot radnju" kako su je zvali osnovali su Ira Fisher i Robert Moore oko 1840. godine na farmi, četiri milje istočno od Luthersburga.


Keramika je bila izrađena od močvarne gline i bila je crveno posuđe. Drugi su uspjeli u poslu, Joseph Hamilton ga je kupio 1850. godine, ali je ubrzo umro.


Proizvodnja je pretvorena u kameno posuđe, pri čemu se koristila meka vatrena glina koja se vadila pri ruci.


George C. Kirk (još živi), Seyler i Potter iznova su započeli na mjestu koje sada zauzima Florence Kirk, milju istočno od Luthersburga, a gospodin Kirk ga je vodio do 1900. godine kada je suspendiran.


Izrada svilenog pliša. Proizvodnja svilenog pliša započela je u tvornici Clearfield Textile Company u Clearfieldu 1913. Ovi radovi sada imaju godišnji prosječni kapacitet od 600.000 jardi svilenog baršuna. Kad rade puno radno vrijeme, zapošljavaju 150 ljudi, od kojih su tri četvrtine žene i djevojke.


Kineska svila obojena u crno, nakon što je primljena, mora proći kroz brojne procese na mašinama, od kojih su mnogi vrlo genijalne konstrukcije. Prije nego što svila bude spremna za razboj, prolazi kroz tri operacije: namotavanje, čišćenje svile i savijanje. Tada je spreman za razboj, kada se radi tkanje, pjevanje, šišanje, peglanje, dorada, pregled, pakiranje i pakiranje. Tada je spreman za prodaju. Poprečni niti ili vuneni su pamučni i prije tkanja moraju proći iste postupke kao i svila. Tkanina je dvostruko tkana, a samonaoštrećim nožem u stroju reže se na vrlo genijalan način. Ovo ostavlja "quotpile" koji stoji nakon svilenog baršuna nakon završetka.


Svakom mašinom upravlja zasebni električni motor. Obično njima upravljaju djevojke ili žene. Postrojenje se grije i provjetrava prolazeći vanjski zrak

JASNA ŽUPANIJA - SADAŠNJOST I PROŠLOST


preko radijatora koji se zagrijavaju i navlaže parom iz kotla. To se radi, kako zbog zdravlja zaposlenih, tako i radi održavanja svile u ispravnom stanju za rad. Temperatura se održava ravnomerno na 78 stepeni, a vlažnost na 60 stepeni, automatski, u radnoj prostoriji. Osim toga, testira se dva puta dnevno. Radne sobe su osvijetljene odozgo. Cijela biljka održava se čistom i sanitarnom. Broj zaposlenih iz svih razloga, uključujući bolest, nije veći od pet posto. Oni su plaćeni za komadni rad, uz bonus za dobar rad. Kompanija ima lijepu, laganu klupsku kuću za svoje zaposlenike. To je oko 45x100 stopa, koje sadrži igraonicu, čitaonicu i sobu za ručak, osim odvojenih toaleta i tuš kada za muškarce i žene. Sobe su opremljene klavirom, victrolom, stolovima za ručak i stolicama, takođe bibliotekom. Kafa se služi zaposlenima koji donose ručak. U blizini se nalazi teniski teren na korištenje zaposlenima. Kompanija je izgradila jedanaest dvokrevetnih i dvije jednokrevetne kuće, sve opremljene kadom, tekućom vodom, toaletima i električnim svjetlom, travnjacima i vrtovima, koje iznajmljuju svojim zaposlenicima po umjerenim cijenama. Sada ih okupiraju dvadeset četiri porodice.


Štavionice. Trenutno u županiji još uvijek radi veliki broj parnih kožari, koji zapošljavaju veliki broj muškaraca.


Ali industrija opada što se tiče okruga Clearfield, neki su zatvoreni, a drugi rade samo pola radnog vremena. Kad je izrezana drvena kukuta i drvo hrasta kamenog hrasta, unosi se malo kore. Tada se i štavljenje danas u velikoj mjeri vrši korištenjem kemikalija, pa se nove kožariće pri izgradnji nalaze bliže centrima velikog broja stanovnika.


Trenutno postoje velike parne štavnice u Curwensvilleu, Clearfieldu i nekoliko drugih gradova u okrugu.


Rane štavionice. Izgleda vjerovatno da je Benjamin

JASNA ŽUPANIJA - SADAŠNJOST I PROŠLOST


Hartshorn je imao prvu kožaru u okrugu na svojoj farmi sjeverno od Curwensvillea nekoliko godina prije 1812, kada je Josiah Evans došao u Curwensville. Bilo je nekoliko drugih koji su započeli gotovo rano. Svi su radili u malim razmjerima, a po starom postupku bilo je potrebno dosta vremena za štavljenje kože & quotide & quot.


Daniel Spackman imao je štavionicu blizu sadašnjeg štuka istočno od Curwensvillea, a Thomas Reynolds je imao prvu u Clearfieldu gdje se nalazi kuća suca McEnally, a Jacob Irwin je imao jednu gdje se nalazi kuća Dr. Boyer.


Drugi rani štavljivači bili su William McNaul u Curwensvilleu 1819, Benjamin Bonsall u blizini Luthersburga 1814. do 1820., gospodin McPherson u blizini Luthersburga, a potom su njima upravljali drugi, uključujući John McGaughey i Wm. Kirk. Godine 1825. Orvis Hoyt je izgradio kožaru u Clearfieldu, a zatim i Shirk. Russell & amp Smith otvorili su tanyard u Pennvilleu (sada Grampian) oko 1848. Kožari su takođe osnovani u New Washingtonu, Glen Hopeu i drugim mjestima. Godine 1882. u županiji su još radile tri stare štavnice.


U tim ranim štavionicama kora se melje između mlinskog kamenja, a energiju su dobivali konji. Svi ostali poslovi obavljali su se ručno, a kože su mjesecima natapane u kacama.


Steam Tanneries. 1882. u županiji su osnovane četiri parne kožnice sa ukupnim kapacitetom od 335 koža dnevno. Kasnije su na različitim mjestima osnovane mnoge druge velike štavnice, i obavljen je ogroman posao, a posao s korom postao je priličan izvor prihoda poljoprivrednicima i drvosječama.


Cijene kori za kore bile su često niske, ali donijele su prihod kada su inače bila prilično dosadna vremena.


Mnogo kore kukutu se prodavalo po cijeni od 3,00 USD i 3,50 USD po užetu, ali bilo je toliko žurbe da je skinu i uzmu

JASNA ŽUPANIJA - SADAŠNJOST I PROŠLOST


novac za to, da se drveće ponekad sječe i ljušti zbog kore, a ostatak drveta leži i trune u šumi. Ponekad je toplana dopirala u štavionice da nisu mogli to iskoristiti i morali su je neko vrijeme odbijati.


Osim onih koje se sada koriste, parne kožnice su ranije radile u Osceoli, Penfieldu, DuBoisu, Mahaffeyu i Westoveru, od kojih je većina napuštena ili će uskoro biti.


Vuneni mlinovi. Čini se da su vuneni mlinovi postali prošlost u okrugu Clearfield.


Čini se da su posljednje tvornice vune u pogonu bile John Hill u Curwensvilleu i Johnsonova tvornica u blizini Bells Landinga. Posljednji je zadnji vodio James Pontefract, sve dok nije izgorio 1890.


Čini se da je jedna od prvih vunenih mlinova u okrugu izgrađena na Hogback Run -u, ispod Curwensvillea & quot; George Leach i Mason Garrison 1815. & quot. Mašina za češljanje donesena je iz rijeke Lewisburg.


Međutim, & quotThe Elder vidio je mlinove i stroj za češljanje koji su podignuti i pušteni u rad na Little Clearfield Creeku blizu ušća 1815. & quot U zgradi je bila i konoba. Stariji nikada nije boravio u okrugu.


Ovo je otprilike mjesto na kojem se sada nalazi Dimeling Station i koji je izvorno bio u vlasništvu Roberta Eldera iz općine Half Moon, okrug Center. Drugi izvještaji navode datum osnivanja Starješine mlina kao 1826. i da je njime upravljao William Raimsay.


Bridgeport Mill sagradio je John Draucker 1824. godine. Ovaj mlin s poboljšanjima koja su dodana kasnije radio je do juna 1881. godine, kada je uništen u požaru.


U stara vremena & quotit je bio običaj da poljoprivrednici donose vunu u mlinove nakon šišanja ovaca i pretvaraju je u kolute. Zatim su je odnijeli kući gdje su je žene ručno vrtjele, neke koristeći male, druge velike

JASNA ŽUPANIJA - SADAŠNJOST I PROŠLOST


kotač koji se okreće. & quot; Prvi je upravljao u sjedećem položaju pomoću gazišta, ali s 'quotbig wheel' operater je pokretao pogonsku snagu pomoću igle koja se držala u ruci i bio je dužan trčati naprijed -nazad, izvlačeći konac i namotavanje pređe. I to je bila dobra vježba!


& quotTkanje se također uglavnom radilo u kućama, sirova tkanina se vraćala u mlinove kako bi se napunila, ofarbala i završila pripremnu za šminkanje. & quot Kasnije je bila praksa da se vlasnik fabrike vozi sa farme na farmu sa svojim & quotWool Wagon & quot trguje gotovom tkaninom, ćebadima ili pređom poljoprivredniku za vunu.


Grist Mills. U županiji postoji samo nekoliko mlinova za mljevenje brašna. Još uvijek ih ima nekoliko vode, što je vjerojatno bio prvi izvor energije koji se koristio u županiji. Sada nekoliko mlinova radi na električnu energiju. Poljoprivrednici također mnogo bruse stočnu hranu benzinom, dok neki koriste električnu energiju u tu svrhu. U različito vrijeme u županiji je bilo izgrađeno 40 ili 50 mlinova za kruh.


Postoje barem tri koje još uvijek rade na vodeni pogon. Hagerty's Mill na Maderi, mlin u Burnsideu i jedan u Cherry Treeu.


Proizvodnja brašna za kruh sada je gotovo u potpunosti od tvrdoga jarog pšenice, a veliki mlinovi za proizvodnju hljebnog brašna nalaze se u Minnesoti.


Kasniji mlinovi koriste valjkasti postupak za proizvodnju brašna, ali stari mlinovi su koristili francuske bušilice, a prvi su koristili mlinsko kamenje izvađeno iz domaće stijene.


Prvi mlin za žitarice u okrugu sagradio je Matthew Ogden na Moose Creeku, blizu Clearfielda, oko 1804. godine.


Napravljen je vrlo jednostavno, ali efikasno od materijala koji je pri ruci. Kaže se da je u cijeloj strukturi bio samo jedan komad željeza, šiljak koji se koristio za vreteno. & quotBolter je napravljen od pokrivne tkanine i bio je pričvršćen remenom izravno na vodeni kotač, ali bez obzira na njegovu grubu konstrukciju,

JASNA ŽUPANIJA - SADAŠNJOST I PROŠLOST


mlin je neko vrijeme opskrbljivao žitarice susjedstvu, a sve dok Robert Maxwell nije sagradio drugi mlin na Anderson Creeku nekoliko godina kasnije. & quot


Prije nego što je Matthew Ogden sagradio svoj mlin, Daniel, otac, morao je otići u Lock Haven kako bi obavio brušenje, koristeći kanu na rijeci za putovanje, a kad je obrok bio nizak, upotrijebio je stari avion za spajanje okrenut odozdo prema gore, i povlačeći klas kukuruza po površini, uspio proizvesti dovoljnu količinu obroka za potrebe porodice.


Godine 1816. James Moore je izgradio mlin za žitarice na mjestu gdje sada stoji Grampian s jednim nizom kamenja i grubom tkaninom za vijke. 1827. sagradio je okvirni mlin za zrna sa dva niza kamena. Budući da je potok bio mali, dodatnu energiju povremeno je napajala snaga zamaha koju su pokretali konji. 1838. instaliran je parni stroj, prvi koji je u okrugu vodio mlin za kruh. Motor je kupljen u Pittsburghu i vučen je na vagonima iz Johnstowna.


Tokom sušnih sezona vozili su se noćni i dnevni vagoni sa žitom koje je često dolazilo četrdeset milja ili više. Svako prisiljen da čeka svoj red, gomila je često bila velika, muškarci su morali čekati od jednog dana do sedmice, a ponekad su se okretali i pomagali poljoprivrednicima u okolini sa njihovim usjevima. Neki ljudi su rekli da su na svom putu prešli čak sto kilometara od jednog mlina za suhu vodu.


Ovaj prvi motor bio je ocijenjen na osam konjskih snaga, ali je kotao bio dugačak 18 stopa i promjera 30 centimetara, bez dimnjaka i izrađen od željeznih ploča od 3,8 cm. Cilindar je bio promjera 10 inča, s hodom od tri stope. Balans je imao trinaest stopa u prečniku.


Kad je motor bio spreman za paljenje, inženjer iz Pittsburgh-a koji ga je instalirao sjeo je na sigurnosni ventil i kada je pomislio da je para dovoljno visoka, iznenada je ispao, kada je odao jedan od najnezemaljskijih zvukova

JASNA ŽUPANIJA - SADAŠNJOST I PROŠLOST


inable, što je gomilu dece koja su se okupila, kući poslalo u žurbi. Kaže se da ovaj prvi mlin nije imao financijski uspjeh, iako je u to vrijeme služio vrijednoj svrsi. Bilo je potrebno toliko uglja da je bilo skupo raditi.


Pravljenje javorovog šećera i sirupa. When the first settlers came to the county, it was almost impossible to get much or any cane sugar. At that time sugar and syrup were made from cane mainly in Cuba all sugar was dark brown. Then there was no means of transportation except by going after an article a long ways either afoot or horseback. But most people knew that sugar maple sap could be boiled down to make syrup and sugar. So maple syrup and sugar, made by boiling down sap in a common iron kettle was about the only sweet they had, unless a bee tree was located in the woods during the summer, to be cut in the fall when the combs were full of honey.


Necessity is proved to be "the mother of invention" by the ingenuity displayed by the pioneers under stress of circumstances. This is well illustrated in the matter of making sugar and syrup, and in so doing, making use of the materials, no matter how crude or apparently unsuitable, that were at hand. As most families possessed an iron kettle, which was at that time, an almost indispensable article for making soap, butchering, heating water for washing, etc., the means of evaporating the sap by boiling, was at hand. Along in March then the sugar maple trees, of which there were plenty, were "tapped" either by cutting a slanting notch in the side of the tree near the ground and inserting a chip down which the sap could run and drop into the vessel set under to catch it, or by boring auger holes in the tree a foot or more from the ground and inserting spiles made from sumac or elder stalks, which had a pith that could be punched out leaving a channel in each, through which the sap could flow into the vessel set to receive it. Vessels being scarce, troughs of wood were made

CLEARFIELD COUNTY - PRESENT AND PAST


about two feet long by splitting short logs into juggles and then hewing them out on the flat side so they would hold sap.


The kettle was hung on a pole held up by forked stakes driven into the ground in a convenient place in the maple woods and a wood fire made under it. Then the sap was carried from the trees in buckets, by the children and others, and boiled and boiled until it began to get thick enough for syrup. It was then.taken off, and if it was to be made into sugar, the syrup was "sugared off" over a fire, probably in the house, where it could be stirred continually and carefully watched to avoid burning. At a certain stage of boiling in the kettle outside, some syrup was taken out in a dipper and poured in cold water, or better on snow. If it hardened properly on touching the snow, it was ready to take off. It was also in a most delicious state for taffy making, which was the great thing to which the children looked forward.


In later times, a few people made quite a little family business of making syrup and sugar. Soon improved methods of tapping, gathering, evaporating and "sugaring off" were used. The Joe Davis sugar camp in the Grampian Hills was a typical example of the industry. Mr. Davis, a farmer, had quite a large family of boys and girls and he also hired some extra help for the camp season. At first he made spiles of pine wood, boring them out. Later, however, he procured metal spiles. On these tin buckets were hung and even covered with lids of wood or tin so that all dirt could be kept out of the sap. Then a camp was built in the maple woods, in which one or two large evaporating pans were set over brick furnaces.


The sap was hauled on a sled on which barrels were carried to hold the sap as it was gathered from the trees in buckets. When the barrels were full, the bung was driven and they were hauled to the camp, where they were rolled on a skidway which reached up beside the evaporating camp.

CLEARFIELD COUNTY - PRESENT AND PAST


Then, one by one, the barrels were put in position, a flexible rubber pipe was inserted in the bung-hole and the sap siphoned out into a tub, being strained and cleaned as it flowed through a muslin strainer.


From the tub a faucet let the strained sap drip into the evaporating pan nearly as fast as it boiled away, until there came to be a syrup in the pan, of the right consistency. Then by an ingenious contrivance, the pan could be swung off the furnace and the syrup drawn off into a keg or other vessel. Afterwards the syrup was taken to another building, put in a pan on a range and by means of a hygrometer, brought to just the right consistency, eleven pounds to the gallon, so that while sufficiently thick, the sugar would not readily settle to the bottom. After this it was canned up hot so it would keep all summer. If it was desired to make sugar cakes, then the syrup from the boiling house was put on the range and boiled somewhat longer than for syrup, or until it was quite thick and then tested in water or on snow and when of the right consistency, was poured into greased moulds, like little cake pans of various sizes, and left to cool, when it was turned out as sugar cakes, most delicious to eat.


This camp was run for a good many seasons, and was a great resort, especially for young people and children, who could here buy a pure and delicious confection that they could see in the making, at a low price. But eventually Mr. Davis got up in years, the children grew up and found homes of their own, so the camp was abandoned and later the trees cut and sawed into lumber. Practically the same fate has befallen all of the old sugar camps, the trees have been cut for lumber, often because no one wished to continue to open and run the camp. However, the demand has never ceased for maple sugar and syrup. It is even greater now than ever, since the population of the towns has increased, and some day probably some enterprising person or family will revive this industry from a younger growth of sugar maples, in a

CLEARFIELD COUNTY - PRESENT AND PAST


manner adapted to our changed conditions of business.


Making Shook. In the years between 1860 and 1880 quite a business was carried on at different places in the county making "shook", that is the material for barrels, put up in bundles.


Red oak was cut up into blocks of the proper length, then split into staves three-fourths inch thick and hauled to the shook shop.


Here the staves were shaved by hand and cut with wide middle and tapering ends to allow for the bulge of the barrel. Then the staves were cut with howel at ends and made true, were set up and heated by fire made inside of the barrel form, and staves were bent into proper shape, temporary iron hoops being driven on and the "chine" was cut with a "croze". After the staves were thus shaved, cut and bent, they were numbered, the barrel was taken down and the bundle of staves for each barrel was fastened together with a white oak hoop at each end, the ends of each hoop being hooked together. Then the bundles were hauled to the railroad. Many of them were shipped to Cuba to make barrels to hold molasses and rum. There were shook shops in Luthersburg, Rockton, Lumber City, Grampian, Curwensville and other towns in the county.


Making Things at Home. The early people of the county did their own manufacturing right at home. Nearly every farmer had a workshop, and in this he made nearly all the articles he needed.


Thomas Kirk, Sr. made the first threshing machine in the county and it was used for many years. Jason Kirk, his son, could make all kinds of tools and not only did so, but taught his sons to make a sled, wagon, spinning wheel,turning lathe, nail, mill, house, or to put a spring in a lock.


William Wall learned how to make shoes by tearing up an old shoe to see how it was put together.

CLEARFIELD COUNTY-PRESENT AND PAST


Women learned to take the wool off the sheep's back, card and spin it into yarn, weave the yarn into cloth and fashion clothes from it for the family, even dyeing the cloth with vegetable coloring matter.


Slate pencils for children were cut out of the slate rock, and ink, in which to dip their quill pens was made from berry juice.


Every boy learned to whittle and to work in wood more or less and ingenuity in making things was highly thought of.


Girls too, learned to make much of little, so must fashion their clothes neatly from the material at hand, and be able to cook an appetizing dinner with common victuals, making up in skill what they lacked in material.

RAFTS TIED UP AT CLEARFIELD
Matthew Scouten Ogden Barn in Extreme Left Background. Taken about 1888.


Carding Mill

Carding mills prepared wool for spinning by brushing the fibers to evenly align them. Farm families sheared, sorted, picked, and scoured wool before bringing it to the mill. Then wool was loosened in the picker to ready it for the carding machine. The “carding engines” brushed the wool into rolls for spinning or into batting for quilts. As industrialization proceeded, carding, spinning, and weaving machinery were combined in New England’s expanding woolen factories. But some rural carding mills remained in operation through the middle of the 19th century, catering to a dwindling market of home spinners. Carding machines took only 20 minutes to produce what required all day to card by hand!

The Carding Mill at Old Sturbridge Village survived in its original condition with much of its machinery intact. It was moved to the Village in 1963. Of the hundreds that once dotted the New England landscape, it is the only water-powered carding mill to survive today.

MUSEUM HOURS

April 16 – October 11

OPEN Wednesday – Sunday from 9:30 am to 5:00 pm

  • All of April School Vacation Week (April 16 – 25, 2021)
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  • Monday, October 11

Learn more, get tickets, and read current policies here.

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Old Sturbridge Village Address

1 Old Sturbridge Village Road
Sturbridge, MA 01566
(800) 733-1830

For GPS use: 29 Stallion Hill Road

Lodging Address

Old Sturbridge Inn & Reeder Family Lodges
369 Main Street
Sturbridge, MA 01566

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Old Sturbridge Inn and Reeder Family Lodges are closed for the time being.
Area Lodging


Step by step

So now we’ve sorted out where we’re heading, let’s go back to the beginning. After scouring, fibre may be carded, combed and spun. Which of these steps are taken depends on whether you want to felt, knit or weave with the fibre.

Plant fibres like cotton and hemp have a similar but slightly different process to what I outline below. There is equipment to do this with the Melbourne Fibreshed, but I haven’t been able to see these in action yet. I’ll update this post when I know more.

The carding, combing and spinning process

Some processers add water and/or anti-static before starting. The water relaxes the fibre and reduces dust. The anti-static goes a step further to reduce the build up of static during the process, which can break the fibres.

Dehairing – Alpaca, goat mohair and cashmere all have long scratchy fibres mixed in with the softer fibres we prefer to use for clothing. They can be removed by hand, but most people use dehairing machines instead. Unfortunately this ends up as a waste product in the process, because the result is usually mixed with grass seeds. If you can think of a use for it, there’s a lot of fibre processors who’d like to hear your ideas.

A dehairing machine: the bin at the front holds the smooth fibre that comes out at the end of the process

Mixing – if the yarn is made from a blend of different fibres, it’s often mixed at this stage. Mills work to ‘recipes’ where fibres are measured by weight, then spread out on top of each other in layers. Chunks of this mix are separated out for processing, helping to keep the ratio mix consistent. With hand processing, staples of fibre are spread out in even layers on a hand or drum carder.

Carding – fibres are often a bit clumped after scouring, so this step opens the fibres up. Carding also removes a little bit of vegetable matter. This is where the process begins to split according to what you’re aiming for. There are woollen carders and worsted carders. The slivers that come off the woollen cards are ready for spinning. Worsted cards begin to align the fibres a little bit before moving on to gilling.

Carding machines look super cool, with their rotating drums with wires at different lengths. This part of the process seems to be proprietary, so I can’t show you any photos of a carding machine in action. Luckily, hard carders are less shy of paparazzi.

Gilling – carding shakes things up a bit, so the fibre is usually gilled several times. Gilling machines ensure the worsted sliver is a uniform weight throughout. They also further align the fibres.

Gilling machines are the swans of the process – they take the slivers up gracefully. All the work happens where you can’t see it inside the machine, so it looks like magic.

Combing – this is the slowest part. Combing straightens out the fibres, and removes the shortest ones (the waste from this process is fed back into the woollen process, which uses short fibres). After combing, all the fibres are well aligned with each other, and more vegetable matter has been removed. It’s gilled one last time, then passed to felters or spinners as a finished top.

Fibres exiting the combing machine

Spinning – The woollen sliver or worsted top is condensed into thin roving. This is drawn out and twisted to create a single ply of yarn. To hand spin woollen yarn, the roving is rolled into rolags. It’s then drawn out and spun using a longdraw drafting technique. To hand spin worsted yarn, the roving is drawn out and spun using a short drafting movement. A man’s jumper requires about 1kg of roving. I’ve been told that this would take most hand spinners about 6 days to spin.

A single ply yarn can be used as is, but it is often plyed to increase its strength and stop it twisting in on itself. Spinning creates tension in the fibres, so the yarn is steamed or rested to release that energy.


Carding Machine - History

Carding machines brushed the cotton so that all the fibers faced the same direction. Cards were the most dangerous machines in thread mills. Until the 1940s, they were operated almost exclusively by men, but during World War II women like Alice LaFerriere of the American Thread Company in Willimantic, Connecticut, shown in this c. 1950 photo, also began to operate cards. From the collections of the Windham Textile and History Museum.

After the cotton was carded, workers ran the sliver through a series of machines – drawing heads, slubbers, roving frames, i utičnice – that prepared it for spinning by twisting and folding it. The end result of the twisting and folding was a substance known as roving, which looked a lot like thick yarn, but – because it had yet to be spun – was not nearly as strong and could be pulled apart fairly easily by hand. Workers wound the roving onto large bobbins – in Barrows’s time made of a hard wood known as ironwood, but today made of plastic – and took it to the spinning room. There, a mostly female workforce used machines called spinning frames to draw (stretch) and spin (twist) the cotton until it emerged as thin strands of strong thread. Spinning frames were noisy, like most mill machinery, and workers frequently suffered from hearing loss. Spinning frames also produced copious amounts of cotton dust and lint that, when inhaled, often led to lung diseases.

From the spinning room, the thread usually went to another room to be twisted (combined with several other strands to make a stronger, thicker product sewing machine thread, for example, was usually “six-cord”) and prepared for dyeing. In the nineteenth century, thread was dyed in loose skeins in open vats, but in the twentieth century, large, new, efficient sealed pressure vats made it possible to dye thread while it was wound onto special metal spools. Once twisted and dyed, the thread was taken to another location to be mercerized, a finishing process that kept it from fraying, and rewound onto wooden (later plastic, Styrofoam, or cardboard) spools, tubes, cones, or pre-wound sewing machine bobbins for distribution.

In order to maximize profits, textile mills often sought to control as many steps of the manufacturing process as possible, a strategy known as vertical integration. The Willimantic Linen Company owned a township in northern Maine – also named Willimantic – where it harvested white birch for spools. Later, when most of the white birch in Willimantic, Maine, had been harvested, the American Thread Company (which purchased the Willimantic Linen Company in 1898) moved its sawmills to Milo and Lakeview, Maine. The WLC also had its own print shop, where it printed its labels and boxes. And it had a machine shop, where skilled machinists crafted replacement parts for the various machines.

How We Make Our Thread ends with the finished thread being boxed and sent to market. But other textile mills in Willimantic and elsewhere in Connecticut took the process further, weaving thread into cloth on large, industrial looms. Like pickers, carding machines, and spinning frames, power looms were both noisy and dangerous. Their metal-tipped flying shuttles traveled back and forth at around 60 miles per hour. Sometimes they came loose and flew out of the machines, seriously injuring workers.

Once it was woven, the cloth was shipped to urban factories called sweatshops – usually located in metropoli like New York, Boston, Hartford, and Providence – where other workers, most of them women hunched over heavy, noisy industrial-sized sewing machines, cut and stitched it into garments.


Personal introduction to the Old Lady. Receive a personal tour of Birkeland Brothers Wool, have lunch, and watch us card a batt. Handwritten thank you, which will be mailed with a Birkeland Brothers Wool fridge magnet. Your name on our supporter “Wall of Fame” which will be erected prominently in the shopfront.

Private lessons for you and up to four friends (5 total) on making your very own Waldorf-inspired, southdown-stuffed heirloom doll. Will be 5 lessons over 7 weeks, starting in January on a day that works for you. The basic doll kit will be included, so everyone will have everything they need to make your own woolly treasure.


Wool carding machines

OCTIR-DRAGON MULTITRAVE WOOLLEN CARDING SETS The best woollen carding sets to produce the highest quality yarns. Each single part of the woollen carding sets is produced in Italy .

Engineered to process manmade fibres for coarse, medium and fine count yarns Equipped with single or double doffers at delivery: detaching rollers or combs allow to process all types of fibres Continious volumetric feeder Integrated .

Carding gap optimization with unprecedented precision Even an experienced technologist cannot carry out extremely narrow TARGET settings of e.g. 3/1000" with the “cold” card at standstill, because .

DESCRIPTION A carding willow has been manufactured by Bonino for many years and represents the best system to open staple wool fibre, providing efficient opening and blending without damaging fibre .

WOLLEN Bonino Carding Machines was established in Biella at the beginning of the 20th Century. Throughout its proud history the company has continuously invested in research and development in order .


1. Introduction to carding and key points

There are multiple definitions available per different views.

Carding itself is defined as the illegal use of the card (Credit/Debit) by unauthorized people (carder) to buy a product. For educational purposes, I will now show how a carder is able to go about their illicit activities. Remember – carding is highly illegal, and should not be attempted under any circumstances.

1.1 Key points in carding method


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The general operations for yarn manufacturing are carding, drawing, twisting, and spinning. Carding sections are well known as the heart of a spinning mill. 1 “To card well is to spin well” is a term very extensively used by all those concerned with spinning technology. 2 The purpose of carding is the individualization of every fiber by opening out the tiny lumps, flocks, or tufts thoroughly, and the cotton is no more in an entangled state. This removes most of impurities, neps, short fibers, and so on, which have escaped in the blow-room section. Finally, the well-cleaned material is processed into a compressed sliver form and lays continuously for the succeeding processes. In a carding machine, as shown in Figure 1 , the first cylinder, called the taker-in, is used to introduce the lap (highly tangled fibers) into the carding machine. The hooked flat plates, known as flats, act to break down and tease tufts into individual fibers, in order to form a smooth coherent sliver. 3

Figure 1. A diagram of different parts of a carding machine.

The better quality of the carded sliver is not only dependent on trash and neps content but also on the evenness in card web (weight per unit area), fiber parallelization and fiber-to-fiber separation, and minimizing short term variation in sliver thickness. 4 However, to obtain this quality, the setting parameters of carding machine play an important role, and a small change in the setting is enough to produce inferior sliver quality. 2 Normally, the quality of yarn is very much dependent on the quality of the sliver for sure.

Various improvements were observed with the cotton card for the last three decades. 5 Peng-zi and Jing-dang 6 studied the influence of wind flow of web cleaner in a carding machine on the quality of card sliver, and the result shows that neither too large nor too small wind flow at back plate is favorable for card sliver quality. The effect of rotor speed, rotor diameter, and tandem carding on properties of open-end (OE) yarns were examined by Manohar et al. 7 Jing-dang also worked on the influence of yarn quality of the cotton web cleaner position in the carding machine’s back cover guard. 8

Many researchers have studied the effect of preparatory process variables on sliver and yarn properties. Plawat et al. suggested various parameter settings of carding machines in order to get the optimum quality at carding. 2 There is some evidence to suggest that the improved carding is attained with reduced cylinder load, which in turn improves the yarn evenness. 4 Vijayaraghavan and colleagues 9 hold the same view. J. Simpson et al. investigated the effect of carding rate and cylinder speed on the spinning performance. It was found that high carding rates resulted in less noils being removed without detrimentally affecting fiber length, yarn properties, or end breakage. 10 Ghosh and Bhaduri 11 found that the card web is influenced mainly by cylinder and doffer speeds and the hank of the delivered sliver. The influences of carding machine back stationary flat gauge and choice of taker-in speed were studied by Zhidan and Pengzi 12 and Sun Pengzi. 13

This article has focused on the changes in carding machines’ elementary process parameters for producing better quality card sliver as well as yarn. Among many variables of the machine parameters, that is, cylinder speed, flat speed, delivery speed, chute feed speed, feed speed, and take in speed, here we worked with the effect of flat speed, while all other parameters were fixed. Flat speed is defined as the substantial speed difference between the cylinder and the flat. 14

From the literature, it was revealed that all the process parameters have a significant effect on fiber carding superiority, fiber damage, reducing short fibers, and impurities. Therefore, the choice of appropriate flat speed also played an important role on sliver and yarn quality. Although some research efforts have been made on other process parameters from the above discussion, there is a lack of detailed research regarding the influence of flat speed in the carding machine. Hence, in this work, an attempt has been taken to investigate and analyze the influence of flat speed on carded sliver and yarn properties, while other process parameters remain same.


It's on the cards: about our Carding Machines

An integral part of all yarns is carding without it the fibre simply can’t be made into anything useful. It’s a bit like brushing your hair, if you do it well then it looks lovely, if you don’t do it, or do it badly, it looks tangled, flat and uneven. So the card separates and spreads out all the fibres to enable them to be re-assembled into an even yarn.

In our mill we have two Carding Machines or Sets (aptly named ‘Card 1’ and ‘Card 2’…sometimes we wonder at our own creativity), the great thing about running two is that we can keep both the woollen and worsted frames busy with fibre without too many stops and starts. We can also do white on one, dark on the other or separate organic from non organic. The carding machines are slightly different, with Card 1 more suitable for finer fibres and Card 2 slightly better for coarser longer fibres, which also extends the range we can process. This is Card 2 seen from our mezzanine floor (photo by Lara).

Carders come in various sizes, from sample to several metres wide in large carpet yarn mills. Ours are 5’ wide and roughly 40’ in length making them small-medium in the woollen mill world. Those of you who have drum carders at home will notice the similarities a drum carder is just a much smaller version, with fewer rollers. Ours are powered from the mains, not by hand (thankfully!). They have leather driving belts and intricate gear systems which enable them to be adjusted to suit each fibre type and are very little changed since the originals were part of the Industrial Revolution.

The truth is, that technology for carding hasn’t changed much in the past 200 years as it is simple and effective modern mechanisation has reduced the amount of human input needed so our Carding Engineer, James, can run both cards simultaneously. Electronic weighing of the input ensures the correct amount of fibre flows into the card to make each specification of yarn, which increases the accuracy and effectiveness of the machinery.

So, how do carders work, exactly? The image below shows a simplified side-on cross-section of a carder.

Pairs of slower, but differently speeding Workers and Strippers alternately pull the fibre off and onto the Swift (which is hidden behind them) and gradually create a uniform web both across its width and along its length. Swifts generally have between three and five pairs of Workers and Strippers, depending on the size and purpose.

At the end of each Swift, there are a Fancy, a Doffer and a Fly Comb, which brush off and collect the fibre ready to go to the next stage of its journey.

A large carding set is in two parts, first the Scribbler which can create batts and rovings, and then the Card which evens out the web ready to split into slubbings to feed a woollen spinning frame. Each part has two Swifts, with the associated feeds, Workers, Strippers, Fancy and Doffer. Between the two, the Peralta crushes out vegetation and seeds and the Scotch Feed transfers from the Scribbler to the Card while also turning the fibre flow by 90 degrees to spread it out further and more evenly.

Then the web is divided by the Calendar Rollers and run between Rubbing Rollers to create the slubbings.

These slubbings are what we make the yarn from on the spinning frame. They are rolled gently onto bobbins over large wooden rollers.

Once the bobbins are full, they are loaded onto carts for their short journey to the woollen spinning frame.

This completes the preparation of fibre for woollen spun or CARDED yarns.

Watch out for the next instalments on preparing fibre for carding and on worsted spun or COMBED yarns!


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Komentari:

  1. Frimunt

    U njemu je nešto. Thanks for the help in this question how I can thank you?

  2. Muraco

    Vaše pitanje Kako se smanjuje?



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