Prvi sud, Magdalene College, Cambridge

Prvi sud, Magdalene College, Cambridge


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Magdalenelitfest

Veliko hvala svima koji su došli na Ferrar konferenciju i izložbu ovdje na Magdalene College, svim predavačima koji su velikodušno podijelili svoje znanje i istraživanje o porodici Ferrar, Little Gidding i Virginia Company, te cijelom osoblju Magdalene College koji su pazio na nas.

Profesor Alison Shell (UCL) drži ključno predavanje na Ferrar konferenciji, koje je predstavio profesor James Raven (Univerzitet Essex i Magdalene College, Cambridge)

Konferencija je označila završetak projekta za ustupanje Ferrarovih otisaka i dolazak naših lijepih, po mjeri izrađenih hrastovih jedinica u koje ćemo ih smjestiti.

Hrastove jedinice naručene za smještaj papira i otisaka Ferrara, autora Ed Garrett-Jonesa i velikodušnog dara Biblioteke prijatelja Pepys i povijesnih zbirki, Magdalene College

Zaostavština ove izuzetno uspješne konferencije dijelom će biti u radu koji inspiriše i radujemo se što ćemo vidjeti kako će konferencija i poboljšani naučni pristup Ferrarovim radovima u Staroj biblioteci postignuti konzervatorskim projektom doprinijeti Sedamnaestom stoljeću studije.

Druga zaostavština bit će bibliografski projekt, na čelu s bibliotekarkom Pepys, dr MEJ Hughes, kako bi se proširio pristup najnovijim naučnim materijalima koji se odnose na zbirku Ferrar u Magdaleni, uključujući i zajedničku bazu podataka koja će omogućiti istraživačima da vide i #8212 i dodajte — ono što znamo o svakoj od (potrebnih 1.000) pojedinačnih stavki.

Za više informacija o dokumentima Ferrar kontaktirajte [email protected]

Neočekivani rezultat konferencije & dva člana velike, moderne porodice Ferrar, Susanna i Richard, sastaju se po prvi put na konferencijskoj izložbi


Prvi sud, Magdalene College, Cambridge - Povijest


Kreolske indije: pitanja, metode i upute
11 decembra 2020
Ovaj mrežni sastanak o planiranju organizirali su Ananya Kabir, Ari Gautier i David Todd sa ciljem istraživanja preliminarnih ideja oko koncepta 'kreolskih indija' ili primjene (i razvoja) teorija kreolizacije za analizu kulturnih susreta koje generiraju višestruko i preklapajuće prisustvo različitih europskih trgovačkih, kolonijalnih i imperijalnih interesa u poluotočnoj Indiji. Ono se oslanjalo na trenutno istraživanje Ananye Kabir i njenu srodnu suradnju s autorom Ari Gautierom na njihovom suosnivaču le thinnai kreyol, a kulturna platforma pokrenuta od maja ove godine. Pridružila se mala grupa pozvanih učesnika, a sljedeća radionica je planirana početkom sljedeće godine.

Podzemna Azija: Globalni revolucionari i napad na Carstvo - predstavljanje knjiga
29 oktobra 2020
19:00 GMT (15:00 EDT / 20:00 CET)

Virtualna proslava knjige za Podzemna Azija: Globalni revolucionari i napad na Carstvo, Tim Harper.
Dodatne informacije & raquo

Rodna pristranost u Indiji, te u Kini, Indoneziji i Bangladešu
24 & ndash25 januar 2020

Ova dvodnevna radionica održana je na Magdalene Collegeu, a organizirana je u vezi s povezanim projektom koji je koordinirala Amartya Sen. Cilj radionice je bio okupiti ljude sa stručnim uvidom u područja relevantna za knjigu koja izlazi iz projekta.
Učesnici & raquo

Opskrbni lanci u ranoj modernoj Europi
1. marta 2019
Crippsova zgrada, Magdalene College, Cambridge
Program & raquo

Rat, zakon i zločin. Pravne istorije Drugog svjetskog rata i njegove posljedice
25-26. Maja 2018
Ova dvodnevna radionica, koju su organizirale Franziska Exeler i Lily Chang (UCL) u sklopu programa Mellon o razmjeni ekonomskih, pravnih i političkih ideja, održana je na Magdalene Collegeu u Cambridgeu. Okupio je povjesničare koje zanimaju novi pristupi pravnim historijama rata. Fokus je bio na Drugom svjetskom ratu i njegovim posljedicama, ispitivanju presjeka prava i rata i njegovih poslijeratnih posljedica.

Ekološke humanističke znanosti i klimatske promjene: Etičko razumijevanje ljudi geološki i drugih oblika života
Libby Robin (Australijsko nacionalno univerzitet)
30 oktobra 2017
Mike Hulme, profesor ljudske geografije, Cambridge, dao je komentare.
Poster događaja & raquo

Urbana historija: prostor, mjesto i veze
9-10. Jun 2017
Radionicu je organizirala Franziska Exeler u suradnji sa Slobodnim sveučilištem u Berlinu, a okupila je povjesničare koji slijede nove smjerove i pitanja u urbanoj povijesti. & lsquoCity & rsquo se ovdje razumije kao mjesto gdje se lokalno i globalno konvergiraju. Posmatrajući grad kao leću različitih političkih, društvenih, ekonomskih i kulturnih pitanja, radionica je istraživala rupture i kontinuitete između kolonijalnih i postkolonijalnih gradova, migracije, sjećanje i naslijeđe carstva, te prijenos znanja i stručnjaka.

Nova ekonomska istorija Indije
11-12. Maja 2017
Historijski projekt bio je domaćin pete konferencije od 11. do 12. maja 2017. godine na Univerzitetu u Cambridgeu. Konferencija se bavila ekonomskom istorijom Indije, posebno u vezi sa razmjenama preko granica, istorijom zakona i istorijom ekonomske misli.

Globalna istorija, digitalna saradnja i istorija trgovine ljudima
24-25. Februara 2017
Ova radionica je održana na Magdalene Collegeu i bila je prvi događaj u većem projektu podržanom grantom za istraživanje AHRC -a, Centrom za historiju i ekonomiju i Programom za međunarodnu historiju (Sydney). Glavna istražiteljica Julia Laite (Birkbeck) i suistražiteljica Philippa Hetherington (SEESS, UCL) ugostile su grupu međunarodnih naučnika koji se bave istorijom trgovine ljudima, krijumčarenja i ilegalnih migracija u modernom periodu kako bi razgovarali o izazovima pisanja globalne istorija trgovine ljudima i mogućnosti za digitalnu saradnju između istraživača koji rade na različitim vremenskim periodima i geografskim lokacijama.
Program radionice & raquo
Lista učesnika & raquo

Francusko carstvo: poređenja, razmjene i saradnje
27. juna 2016
Radionica je okupila kandidate za doktorate koji rade na Francuskoj i njenom carstvu iz komparativne i povezujuće perspektive, posebno s Britanijom i njenim carstvom. To je uključivalo studente iz Francuske (Paris 1 Panth & eacuteon-Sorbonne), Britanije (Cambridge, Oxford, London) i Sjedinjenih Država (Harvard). Glavna tema bila je dinamika oponašanja i saradnje između francuskog i britanskog carstva od osamnaestog stoljeća, od razmjene ideja do institucionalne saradnje u obliku kondominija krajem devetnaestog stoljeća. Druge teme uključivale su ropstvo u Francuskom carstvu, razmjenu između Francuske i Indije i francusko kolonijalno pravo.
Program radionice & raquo
Lista učesnika & raquo

Mreže u trgovini i makroekonomiji
13. i ndash14. Jun 2016
Ovaj dvodnevni događaj organizovali su u saradnji sa Cambridge-INET-om Benjamin Golub (Harvard), Matthew L. Elliott (Cambridge/Caltech) i Vasco M. Carvalho (Cambridge/INET). Radionica se održala na koledžu Magdalene u Cambridgeu, a učesnici su bili Alireza Tahbaz-Salehi (Columbia Business School), Thomas Chaney (TSE) i David Rezza Baqaee (Harvard).
Program radionice & raquo
Učesnici & raquo

Traume, oporavak i teške istorije u jugoistočnoj Aziji
13. i ndash14. Jun 2016
Tim Harper i Iza Hussin organizirali su radionicu o Traume, oporavak i teške istorije u jugoistočnoj Aziji u vezi sa projektom na Transnacionalna istorija zdravlja u jugoistočnoj Aziji, 1914 - 2014. Fokus je bio na gradovima, sjećanju i teškim istorijama u kriznim vremenima, općenito tumačenim: epidemija, sukob, prirodna katastrofa itd. I okupio je mrežu znanstvenika s različitim interesima i stručnošću u cilju stalne saradnje. Radionica se održala na Magdalene Collegeu u Cambridgeu, a sudionici su bili Marieke Bloembergen (Leiden), Franziska Exeler (Cambridge/Berlin), Tomas Larsson (Cambridge), Rachel Leow (Cambridge), Sumit Mandal (Malezija), Pietro Masina (Napulj/Clare) Hall), Paulo Seixas (Lisabon), Silvia Vignato (Milano) i Kirsty Walker (Harvard).
Program radionice & raquo
Učesnici & raquo

Pravo u modernoj istoriji: društvena i politička istraživanja
23. januara 2016
Ovu jednodnevnu radionicu, dio programa Mellon o razmjeni ekonomskih, pravnih i političkih ideja, organizirale su Catherine Evans i Franziska Exeler, a održala se na Magdalene Collegeu. Radionica je okupila povjesničare i pravnike koje posebno zanimaju društvena i politička dimenzija prava, uključujući načine na koje su međunarodni, nacionalni i lokalni akteri primali, prisvajali, koristili ili stvarali pravo. Radovi su pokrivali širok raspon disciplinarnih, metodoloških i geografskih perspektiva. Fokus je bio na modernom periodu, od osamnaestog vijeka do danas.
Učesnici & raquo
Program & raquo

Ekonomski razvoj Indije
26-27. Jun 2015
Interdisciplinarna radionica o ekonomskom razvoju Indije održana je u Cambridgeu od 26. do 27. juna 2015. Radionica je organizovana u saradnji sa Institutom Cambridge-INET sa ciljem da potakne raspravu o ekonomiji, istoriji i srodnim disciplinama. Govornici su bili Sunil Amrith (Harvard), Abhijit Banerjee (MIT), Joya Chatterji (Cambridge), Rohit De (Yale), Esther Duflo (MIT), Kaivan Munshi (Cambridge), Emma Rothschild (Harvard/Cambridge).
Poster radionice & raquo
Raspored & raquo

Francuska i njeno carstvo u globalnoj ekonomiji, 1815-1939
10. juna 2015
Jednodnevna radionica koju su organizirali David Todd, Renaud Morieux, Emma Rothschild i Pierre Singarav & eacutelou održana je 10. juna 2015. u Trinity Hall-u, u sklopu programa o srdačnim razmjenama: Britanija i Francuska u svijetu od 1700. Radionica je istraživala nova globalna ekonomska istorija Francuske i njenog carstva u devetnaestom i početkom dvadesetog vijeka, u uporednoj i povezujućoj perspektivi sa ekonomskom istorijom Britanije i njenog carstva. Učesnici su ispitali nove kvantitativne, političke i kulturne pristupe francuskom formalnom carstvu, finansijske aspekte globalne moći Francuske i uticaj globalne ekonomske ekspanzije na modernu francusku državu i društvo. Takve perspektive olakšat će ponovnu procjenu francuske dimenzije globalizacije devetnaestog stoljeća i iznijeti na vidjelo načine na koje je ona upotpunila, ali i nadmetala se sa poznatijom britanskom i anglo-američkom dimenzijom.
Spisak učesnika & raquo
Raspored & raquo


Carstvo i stvaranje ličnog statusa
9 juna 2014
Ova jednodnevna radionica, koju je organizirala Natasha Pairaudeau, održala se na Magdalene Collegeu u sklopu projekta Sites of Asian Interaction. Radionica je okupila i uporedila perspektive o oblikovanju i primjeni 'ličnog statusa domorodaca' u širokom spektru carskih pravnih sistema. Domorodačka praksa koja se odnosi na brak, porodicu i nasljedstvo uveliko je podržavana pod evropskim carstvima, čak i kad su pretvorene u pravne oblike koje je trebalo regulirati putem kolonijalnih sudova. Na sastanku su istražene razlike i sličnosti među carstvima u načinu na koji je „lični status“ definiran i oblikovan, imperijalno obrazloženje za zadržavanje takvog statusa ili nametanje novih kodeksa, te nivoi autohtonog djelovanja u određivanju njegovog očuvanja ili promjene. Radionica je dalje razmatrala kako su migracije, religija i etničke razlike dodale složenost pitanjima ličnog statusa i kako su pravna naslijeđa carstva ugrađena u sadašnjost.

Peticije i politička kultura u južnoj Aziji
4-5. Juna 2014
Dvodnevna radionica održana je na Magdalen Collegeu u sklopu programa Razmjena ekonomskih, pravnih i političkih ideja. Okupio je naučnike iz različitih perioda istorije južne Azije (rane moderne, kolonijalne i savremene) koji često ne razgovaraju jedni s drugima. U fokus je stavljeno pitanje promjene državnih struktura i odnosa s pojedincima i zajednicama, kao i razmatranje metodoloških i teorijskih izazova postavljenih peticijama. Nadali smo se da bi usredotočenje na promjenu žanrova podnošenja peticija tokom vremena moglo osvijetliti neka od kritičnih pitanja u sadašnjoj istoriografiji Južne Azije, uključujući (ali ne ograničavajući se na) pitanja povijesnog sjećanja, formiranje javnosti, ideje zakona i teme, te promjenu razumevanje uloge države.

Nejednaki mrtvi: katastrofa i historijska reprodukcija nejednakosti
7 marta 2014
Ova jednodnevna radionica, koju su organizirali Patrick Joyce i Pedro Ramos Pinto u vezi s AHRC-ovom istraživačkom mrežom o nejednakosti, društvenim naukama i historiji pojačala, održana je na Magdalene Collegeu. Nastavljajući na temu istraživanja kako se savremene nejednakosti oblikuju prošlim događajima, iskustvima i institucijama, ova radionica je istražila kako su prošla želja i patnja nejednako urezani u društva.
Program i apstrakti

Pravo, građanstvo i demokratija
14. februara 2014
Na sastanku, koji je organizirao Rohit De na Magdalene Collegeu, učestvovali su naučnici koji rade u oblasti prava, državljanstva i demokracije u Indiji. Učesnici su bili Ornit Shani (Haifa), William Gould (Leeds), Eleanor Newbigin (SOAS), Shabnum Tejani (SOAS), Stephen Legg (Nottingham), Rochana Bajpai (SOAS), Taylor Sherman (LSE).

SEATIDE: Rad i mobilnost / Ideje i mobilnost
5. oktobra 2013
Ova neformalna radionica organizovana je oko posjete saradničke grupe istraživača iz Milana i održana u Centru na Magdalene College. Grupa sa Univerziteta u Milanu-Bicocca, koju vodi profesorica Silvia Vignato, razmijenila je informacije sa svojim saradnicima iz Cambridgea o njihovom trenutnom istraživanju i terenskom radu.
Raspored
Učesnici

Advokati za građanska prava u američkoj pravnoj historiografiji
8. jula 2013. u 17.30
Stara kombinovana soba, Trinity College
Profesor Kenneth Mack
Lawrence Biele, profesor prava na Pravnom fakultetu Harvard i autor Predstavljanje rase: stvaranje advokata za građanska prava (Harvard Univesity Press, 2012.). Komentari profesorice Catherine Barnard i profesorice Emme Rothschild. Razgovor su zajedno vodili Centar za istoriju i ekonomiju i Centar za evropske pravne studije.

Razmjene pravnih ideja i praksi: Britanija, Francuska i njihova carstva od 1700
8. jula 2013
Radionica, koju su organizirali Renaud Morieux, Emma Rothschild, Pierre Singarav lou i David Todd, a održana je u Cambridgeu, smatrala je pravo područjem praktične, ali i intelektualne razmjene preko nacionalnih granica.

Program
Učesnici

1848. kao prekretnica u istoriji političke misli
2-3. Jula 2013
Dvodnevna konferencija održana je na Robinson Collegeu u sklopu programa o interakciji između političkih, ekonomskih i vjerskih ideja 1750-1950. Tim sastankom nastavljeno je naše istraživanje o značaju 1848. za političke ideje u Evropi i šire. Cilj je bio razviti i raspraviti radove predstavljene na prvoj radionici u aprilu 2012. godine i planirati buduću publikaciju.
Program
Učesnici

Istorija autorskih prava i intelektualnog vlasništva
13:00 - 16:30
Forum o otvorenom pristupu
17:00 - 19:00
1. jula 2013

U The Parlor and Cripps Auditorium, Magdalene College, 1. jula 2013. održana je diskusija o istoriji autorskih prava i otvorenom pristupu. Uključeni učesnici Peter Baldwin (UCLA), Anne Jarvis (Univerzitetski bibliotekar, Cambridge), Ira Katznelson (Kolumbija/SSRC), Rachel Leow (Harvard), Peter Phillips (Izvršni direktor, Cambridge University Press), Emma Rothschild (Harvard/Cambridge) i Fei-Hsien Wang (Magdalene College, Cambridge).
Poster događaja
Program
Učesnici

Istorija, potrošnja i nejednakost pojačala
6 juna 2013
Domaćin ove jednodnevne radionice bio je Centar, a organizovana je u saradnji sa Mrežom za istraživanje nejednakosti, društvenih nauka i historije koju finansira AHRC na Univerzitetu u Manchesteru. Radionica je imala za cilj istražiti odnos između potrošnje kao oblika ljudskog djelovanja i nejednakosti kao posljedice ljudske interakcije (i uslovljavača takve razmjene). Okupio je povjesničare i društvene naučnike koji su razvili nova pitanja i pristupe u ovim temama.
Program
Učesnici
Izvještaj

Siromaštvo i klima: razgovor
13. maja 2013
Cripps Auditorium, Cripps Court, Magdalene College

Zvučnici:
Dr Gro Harlem Brundtland
Bivši generalni direktor Svjetske zdravstvene organizacije i bivši premijer Norveške

Profesor Amartya Sen
Univerzitet Harvard i Trinity College, Cambridge

Dr Rowan Williams
Magistar Magdalene College, Cambridge

Stolica:
Profesorka Emma Rothschild
Centar za istoriju i ekonomiju, Cambridge

Poster događaja

Upotreba pravnih izvora u proučavanju interakcija Azije
7 maja 2013
Neformalni okrugli sastanak održan je u Centru na Magdalen Collegeu 7. maja 2013. Svrha je bila razmjena ideja o lociranju i korištenju legalnih izvora za stvaranje transnacionalnih istorija. Sazvala ga je Natasha Pairaudeau, a učesnici su bili Tim Harper, Iza Hussin, Tomas Larsson, Kirsty Walker i Fei-Hsien Wang. U razgovoru za okruglim stolom učesnici su razgovarali o tome kako koriste pravne izvore u svom istraživanju i na koje načine se njihov rad bavi pravnim pitanjima.

Oporavak zakona u Aziji
16. marta 2013
Jednodnevna radionica, koju su organizirali Rohit De i Fei-Hsien Wang u vezi s projektom Razmjena ekonomskih, pravnih i političkih ideja, održana je u Trinity Hall-u, Cambridge, 16. marta 2013. Cilj radionice je bio istražiti procese kroz koje su azijska društva prilagodila naizgled vanzemaljske pravne sisteme, te nove institucije i prakse koje su nastale kao rezultat toga. Fokusirajući se na brojna azijska društva, sastanak se nadao da će okupiti discipline i istorije koje se rijetko međusobno razgovaraju, identifikovati slične pojave koje se dešavaju u različitim regijama i otkriti pravne veze među azijskim društvima.

Raspored
Učesnici

Ekonomska istorija siromaštvay
29. - 30. novembar 2012
Prva konferencija Historijskog projekta, održano je na MIT -u. Konferencija se bavila siromaštvom u istorijskoj perspektivi i ispitivala je ekonomske živote siromašnih, u različitim periodima i mjestima.

Novi pristupi azijskoj historiji. Veze, nejednakosti i transformacija
23. novembra 2012
Domaćin ove jednodnevne radionice bio je Centar, a organizovana je u saradnji sa Mrežom za istraživanje nejednakosti, društvenih nauka i historije na Univerzitetu u Manchesteru koju finansira AHRC. Pet predavača se predstavilo o nizu tema, a okrugli sto je završen opštom diskusijom. Ovo je bio drugi događaj Istraživačke mreže u nizu seminara i radionica koji su se održali između 2012. i 2014. Mreža je saradnja između Centra za istraživanje društveno-kulturnih promjena (CRESC) u Manchesteru i Centra za historiju i Ekonomija na Cambridgeu, a režiju potpisuju Pedro Ramos Pinto (Manchester), William O'Reilly (Cambridge) i Patrick Joyce (Manchester i EUI).
Agenda
Lista učesnika

Sudija Stephen Breyer u razgovoru
9. jula i 11. jula 2012
Stephen Breyer, pomoćni sudija Vrhovnog suda SAD, posjetio je Centar u julu. Ovom prilikom obilježena su dva događaja, prvi 9. jula sa studentima doktorskih i istorijskih studija istorije. Drugi događaj, čiji je suorganizator Centar za evropske pravne studije (CELS), održano je 11. jula na Trinity Collegeu. U razgovoru sa Catherine Barnard i Emmom Rothschild, Justice Breyer je govorio o funkciji uporednog prava, originalnosti u Vrhovnom sudu i ulozi javnog mnijenja u oblikovanju stavova sudija.

Transnacionalna istorija zdravlja u jugoistočnoj Aziji, 1914-2014
30. jun - 1. jul 2012
Dvodnevna radionica, organizovana u vezi sa projektom jugoistočne Azije a domaćin su bili indonezijski partneri na Universitas Gadjah Mada, održano je u Yogyakarti. Sastanak je okupio autore koji su dobili zadatak da doprinesu obimu koji će izaći iz projekta. Glavna svrha sastanka bila je rasprava o okvirnim dokumentima i karakteristikama sveske i planiranje ljetnje škole za 2013. godinu.
Agenda & raquo
Lista učesnika & raquo

Jugoistočna Azija: veze Indije
8. juna 2012
Neformalni okrugli sastanak održan je na Magdalene Collegeu u Cambridgeu u sklopu projekta o lokacijama azijskih interakcija. Cilj sastanka bio je razgovarati o indijskim i britanskim arhivskim materijalima, uključujući saradnju sa državnim arhivima Zapadnog Bengala. Među učesnicima su bili Tansen Sen i Geoffrey Wade iz Centra Nalanda-Sriwijaya na Institutu za studije jugoistočne Azije u Singapuru.
Agenda & raquo
Lista učesnika & raquo

Ponovno promišljanje nejednakosti u historijskoj perspektivi
23. maja 2012
Ova jednodnevna radionica održana je na Univerzitetu u Manchesteru i okupila je povjesničare, sociologe i praktičare koji se bave proučavanjem i razumijevanjem široko shvaćene nejednakosti. Cilj je bio mapirati niz pitanja koja će voditi članove naše istraživačke mreže u istraživanju proizvodnje i reprodukcije nejednakosti s vremenom. Radionica je bila uvodni događaj Mreže za istraživanje nejednakosti, društvenih nauka i historije koju finansira AHRC, koji će održati niz javnih seminara, radionica i konferencija između 2012. i 2014. Mreža je saradnja između Centra za istraživanje društveno-kulturnih promjena (CRESC) u Manchesteru i Centra za historiju i ekonomiju na Cambridgeu, a režiju potpisuju Pedro Ramos Pinto (Manchester), William O'Reilly (Cambridge) i Patrick Joyce (Manchester i EUI).
Program & raquo

1848. kao prekretnica u istoriji političke misli
11-12. Aprila 2012
Dvodnevna konferencija održana je na Kraljevskom koledžu u sklopu programa Interakcija između političkih, ekonomskih i vjerskih ideja 1750.-1950.. Cilj sastanka je bio da se razgovara o novom pravcu projekta koji razmatra 1848. kao prekretnicu u istoriji političke misli. Ovo će biti velika istraga koja će preispitati značaj 1848. godine u Evropi i šire. Događaji Arapskog proljeća podsjećaju nas na nesigurne obrasce, razvoj i uspjehe revolucija. Ne samo da ćemo revolucije iz 1848. ispitati u globalnom okruženju, već ćemo primijeniti i nove pristupe u historiji političke misli, koji su razvijeni u Cambridgeu i drugdje od 1970 -ih.
Program & raquo
Lista učesnika & raquo

Protivnik njegovog veličanstva: Subhas Chandra Bose i indijska borba protiv Carstva
31. maja 2011
Panel diskusija o novoj knjizi Sugata Bose o Subhas Chandra Bose. Učesnici panela bili su Sugata Bose (Harvard), Sunil Amrith (Birkbeck, London) i Sumit Mandal ((Humboldt-Universit & aumlt zu Berlin), a diskusiju je vodio Tim Harper (Magdalene College, Cambridge).

Transnacionalna istorija zdravlja u jugoistočnoj i južnoj Aziji, 1914-2014
14. maja 2011
Početni sastanak za planiranje novog programa u vezi sa 100. godišnjicom Kineskog medicinskog odbora održan je u subotu 14. maja 2011. na Magdalene Collegeu. Cilj je bio identificirati ključna intelektualna pitanja koja će se rješavati u eventualnom godišnjici, kako bi se osiguralo značajna saradnja između programa Kine i jugoistočne Azije/Južne Azije, kako bi se učesnici iz institucija u regionu uključili u proces planiranja, i kako bi se raspravljalo o dokumentima koji će biti naručeni za prvu veliku konferenciju koja će se održati u jugoistočnoj Aziji 2012. godine.
Program & raquo
Učesnici & raquo


Dr Marco Nievergelt iz Magdalene Medievalists

Zadovoljstvo nam je najaviti da će naš korizmeni predavač biti dr Marco Nievergelt (Pariski institut za napredne studije), koji će u utorak, 23. februara, održati kolokvijum pod nazivom:

‘Sjena lažnog privida: fikcija, istina i obmana u alegorijskoj poeziji četrnaestog stoljeća (Francuska, Engleska, Italija) ’

Sažetak govora je sljedeći:

The Roman de la Rose nije samo jedan od najutjecajnijih književnih tekstova kasnijeg srednjeg vijeka (sačuvan u više od 300 rukopisa), već je i jedan od najproblematičnijih i intelektualno najizazovnijih tekstova tog razdoblja. Daleko od toga da je to ‘ kanonsko ’ djelo u običnom smislu, Rose zapravo poziva svoje čitatelje da ispitaju sam pojam književnog autorstva i diskurzivnog autoriteta. Umjesto da samouvjereno potvrđuje vlastiti identitet autora, kako mnogi čitatelji ove utjecajne pjesme pretpostavljaju, odnos Jean de Meuna prema vlastitom pjesničkom zanatu zapravo je duboko ambivalentan i ironičan. Ovo kulminira u tačnom središtu pjesme, pojavom lika Faux Semblanta, utjelovljenja licemjerja i obmane. Kao oličenje paradoksa lažljivca, Faux Semblant tako kristalizira čitav niz tjeskoba u vezi s epistemološkim statusom književne fantastike, a ta briga igra središnju ulogu u kasnijoj evropskoj književnosti pod utjecajem Rose, posebno u djelima ličnosti poput Machauta i Deguilevillea u Francuskoj, Langlanda i Chaucera u Engleskoj, ili Dantea i njegovih savremenika u Italiji. U ovom radu predlažem početnu skicu za šire proučavanje evropske recepcijske istorije Rose, s posebnom pažnjom na etičku funkciju poezije i njen problematičan, nestabilan odnos prema istini i prijevari.

Dr Marco Nievergelt trenutno je istraživač EURIAS-a na Pariškom institutu za napredne studije (2015-2016) i radi na dugoj knjizi pod naslovom Alegorija kao epistemologija: Poezija vizije snova o jeziku, spoznaji i iskustvu. Njegovi istraživački interesi uključuju alegorijsku književnost, vitešku književnost i kulturu, arthursku književnost, anglo-francuske kulturne odnose i istoriju književnog samopredstavljanja od srednjeg vijeka do ranog modernog doba. Njegova prva knjiga nosi naslov Alegorijske potrage od Deguilevillea do Spensera.

Razgovor će se održati u 18:00 u salonu, prvom sudu, Magdalene College.

Podijelite ovo:

Volim ovo:


Zgrade s I stupnja u Cambridgeu

Ima ih 67 Zgrade s I stupnja u Cambridgeu, Engleska. U Ujedinjenom Kraljevstvu navedena zgrada je građevina ili građevina od posebnog historijskog ili arhitektonskog značaja. Ove zgrade su zakonski zaštićene od rušenja, kao i od bilo kakvih proširenja ili preinaka koje bi negativno utjecale na karakter zgrade ili uništile povijesna obilježja. Navedene zgrade u Engleskoj podijeljene su u tri kategorije - zgrade II stepena su zgrade od posebnog interesa Zgrade II stepena* su zgrade drugog stepena od posebnog interesa i zgrade I stepena, koje su od "izuzetnog" interesa. Samo oko dva posto navedenih objekata dobiva status I. stupnja. [1]

Mapirajte sve koordinate koristeći: OpenStreetMap
Preuzmite koordinate kao: KML

Cambridge je univerzitetski grad smješten u istočnoj Angliji, Engleska. Tu se nalazi Univerzitet u Cambridgeu, osnovan 1209. godine, a mnoge od navedenih zgrada dio su univerziteta ili njegovih sastavnih fakulteta.

Crkva Svetog Beneta je najstarija sačuvana zgrada u gradu koja datira iz 11. stoljeća. Najstarija svjetovna zgrada je Pitagorina škola, izgrađena oko 1200. godine i sada dio koledža Svetog Ivana. Oboje su navedeni na I stepenu.


40 godina Trusta Jastreba i Sove: od ruba izumiranja do tornja u Tate Modern

Također, bit će i kratkih ilustriranih razgovora o obrazovanju, istraživanju i očuvanju Trusta Jastreb i Sova

Gost predavač: Jefferey Boswall, stvaralac filmova o divljim životinjama na Prirodnjačkoj jedinici BBC -a, a kasnije i za RSPB.

Cripps Court, Magdalene College, Cambridge.

Nedjelja, 20. septembar 2009, 12:00 -14: 30


Sadržaj

George Mallory rođen je u Mobberleyu u Cheshireu, sin Herberta Leigh-Malloryja (1856–1943), svećenika koji je promijenio prezime iz Mallory u Leigh-Mallory 1914. Njegova majka je bila Annie Beridge (1863–1946), kći sveštenika u Waltonu, Derbyshire. George je imao dvije sestre i mlađeg brata, Trafforda Leigh-Malloryja, zapovjednika Kraljevskog ratnog zrakoplovstva u Drugom svjetskom ratu. Odrastao je u kući sa deset spavaćih soba na Hobcroft Laneu u Mobberleyu. [2]

Godine 1896. Mallory je pohađao Glengorse, internat u Eastbourneu na južnoj obali, nakon što je prešao iz druge pripremne škole u West Kirbyju. Sa 13 godina osvojio je matematičku stipendiju za Winchester College. Na posljednjoj godini studija, penjanje i planinarenje upoznao ga je majstor R. L. G. Irving, koji je svake godine poveo nekoliko ljudi na penjanje u Alpama. [3] U listopadu 1905., Mallory je upisala Magdalene College, Cambridge, na studij povijesti. [4] Tamo je postao dobar prijatelj s budućim članovima Bloomsbury grupe, uključujući Ruperta Brookea, Johna Maynarda Keynesa, Jamesa Stracheya, Lyttona Stracheya i Duncana Granta, koji su snimili neke portrete Malloryja. [5] Među tim prijateljima, posebno Lyttonom Stracheyjem, njegova pisma potvrđuju flert, homoerotično i "eksplicitno gay" prijateljstvo. [6] Mallory je bio oduševljen veslač, koji je veslao za svoj fakultet. [7]

1909. godine Lytton Strachey je o Malloryju napisao:

Mon dieu! - George Mallory! ... Ima šest stopa visok, s Praxiteles-ovim tijelom sportaša i licem-o nevjerojatno-misterijom Botticellija, profinjenošću i delikatnošću kineskog tiska, mladošću i pikantnošću nezamislivog engleskog dječaka. [8]

Nakon što je stekao diplomu, Mallory je ostao u Cambridgeu godinu dana pišući esej koji je objavio kao Boswell Biograf (1912). Nakon toga je kratko živio u Francuskoj. 1910. počeo je predavati u Charterhouse školi, još jednoj od velikih engleskih javnih škola, gdje je upoznao pjesnika Roberta Gravesa, tadašnjeg učenika. [1]: 195 U svojoj autobiografiji, Zbogom svemu tome, Graves se rado sjećao Malloryja, kako zbog poticanja njegovog interesa za književnost i poeziju, tako i zbog poučavanja penjanju. Graves se prisjetio: "On (Mallory) je bio iscrpljen (kao učitelj) u Charterhouseu. Pokušao je prijateljski se odnositi prema svom razredu, što ih je zbunilo i uvrijedilo." [9]

Dok je bio u Charterhouseu, Mallory je upoznao svoju suprugu Ruth Turner (1892–1942), [10] koja je živjela u Godalmingu, Surrey, a vjenčali su se 1914. godine, šest dana prije nego što je Britanija ušla u Prvi svjetski rat. George i Ruth su imali dvije kćeri i sina: Frances Clare (1915–2001), Beridge Ruth, poznatu kao „Berry“ (1917–1953), i Johna (r. 1920).

U prosincu 1915., Mallory je bio naručen u artiljeriji Royal Garrison kao potporučnik [11], a 1. srpnja 1917. unaprijeđen je u poručnika. [12] Služio je u Francuskoj i borio se u bitci za Sommu. [13] [14] Mallory se 21. februara 1920. odrekao svoje dužnosti, zadržavši čin poručnika. [15]

Nakon rata, Mallory se vratio u Charterhouse, ali je dao ostavku 1921. godine kako bi se pridružio prvoj britanskoj ekspediciji na Mount Everest. Između ekspedicija, pokušavao je živjeti od pisanja i predavanja, ali samo djelomično. Godine 1923. zaposlio se kao predavač na Odsjeku za vanredne studije Univerziteta u Cambridgeu. [1] : 467 He was given temporary leave so that he could join the 1924 Everest attempt.

In Europe Edit

In 1910, in a party led by Irving, Mallory and a friend attempted to climb Mont Vélan in the Alps, but turned back shortly before the summit due to Mallory's altitude sickness. [16] In 1911, Mallory climbed Mont Blanc, and made the third ascent of the Frontier ridge of Mont Maudit in a party again led by Irving. According to Helmut Dumler, Mallory was "apparently prompted by a friend on the Western Front in 1916 [to write] a highly emotional article of his ascent of this great climb" [17] this article was published as "Mont Blanc from the Col du Géant by the Eastern Buttress of Mont Maudit" in the Alpine Journal [18] and contained his question, "Have we vanquished an enemy?" [i.e., the mountain] to which he responded, "None but ourselves."

By 1913, Mallory had ascended Pillar Rock in the English Lake District, with no assistance, by what is now known as "Mallory's Route"—currently graded Hard Very Severe 5a (Yosemite Decimal Rating 5.9). It is likely to have been the hardest route in Britain for many years.

One of Mallory's closest friends and climbing companions was a young woman named Cottie Sanders, who became a novelist with the pseudonym of Ann Bridge. The nature of their relationship is elusive Sanders was either a "climbing friend" or a "casual sweetheart". After Mallory died, Cottie wrote a memoir of him, which was never published, but provided much of the material used by later biographers such as David Pye and David Robertson and the novel Everest Dream. [19]

In Asia Edit

Mallory participated in the initial 1921 Mount Everest expedition, [20] organised and financed by the Mount Everest Committee, that explored routes up to Everest's North Col. The expedition produced the first accurate maps of the region around the mountain, as Mallory, his climbing partner Guy Bullock, and E. O. Wheeler of the Survey of India explored in depth several approaches to its peak. [21] Under Mallory's leadership, and with the assistance of around a dozen Sherpas, the group climbed several lower peaks near Everest. His party were almost certainly the first Westerners to view the Western Cwm at the foot of the Lhotse face, [22] as well as charting the course of the Rongbuk Glacier up to the base of the North Face. After circling the mountain from the south side, his party finally discovered the East Rongbuk Glacier—the highway to the summit now used by nearly all climbers on the Tibetan side of the mountain. By climbing up to the saddle of the North Ridge (the 23,030 ft (7,020 m) North Col), they spied a route to the summit via the North-East Ridge over the obstacle of the Second Step.

In 1922, Mallory returned to the Himalayas as part of the party led by Brigadier General Charles Bruce and climbing leader Edward Strutt, with a view to making a serious attempt on the summit. Eschewing their bottled oxygen, which was at the time seen as going against the spirit of mountaineering, Mallory, along with Howard Somervell and Edward Norton, almost reached the crest of the North-East Ridge. Despite being hampered and slowed by the thin air, they achieved a record altitude of 26,980 ft (8,225 m) before weather conditions and the late hour forced them to retreat. [1] : 427–428 A second party led by George Finch reached an elevation around 27,300 ft (8,321 m) using bottled oxygen both for climbing and—a first—for sleeping. [1] : 431–34 The party climbed at record speeds, a fact that Mallory seized upon during the next expedition.

Mallory organised a third unsuccessful attempt on the summit, departing as the monsoon season arrived. While he was leading a group of porters down the lower slopes of the North Col of Everest in fresh, waist-deep snow, an avalanche swept over the group, killing seven Sherpas. [23] The attempt was immediately abandoned, and Mallory was subsequently accused of poor judgement, including by expedition participants such as Dr. Longstaff. [1] : 452

Mallory is famously quoted as having replied to the question, "Why did you want to climb Mount Everest?" with the retort, "Because it's there", which has been called "the most famous three words in mountaineering". [24] [25] Questions have arisen over the authenticity of the quote, and whether Mallory actually said it. Some have suggested that it was a paraphrase by a newspaper reporter, but scrutiny of the original Times report leaves this unresolved. The phrase was certainly consistent with the direct quotes cited in the report, so it appears not to misrepresent Mallory's attitude. [26] [27]

June 1924 expedition to Everest Edit

Mallory joined the 1924 Everest expedition, led, as in 1922, by Gen. Charles Bruce. Mallory, who was 37 at the time of the expedition, believed his age would make this his last opportunity to climb the mountain, and when touring the US proclaimed that the expedition would successfully reach the summit. [ potreban citat ]

Mallory and Bruce had made the first attempt, which was inexplicably aborted by Mallory at Camp 5. Norton and Somervell then set off from Camp 6, and in perfect weather, Norton managed, without oxygen, to reach 28,120 ft (8,570 m), a new record height.

On 4 June 1924, Mallory and Andrew Irvine set off from Advanced Base Camp (ABC) at 21,330 ft (6,500 m) and had already begun using oxygen from the base of the North Col, which they climbed in 2 + 1 ⁄ 2 hours. Mallory had been converted from his original scepticism about oxygen usage by his failure on his initial assault and recalling the very rapid ascent of Finch in 1922.

On 8 June, expedition member Noel Odell was moving up behind the pair in a "support role". Around 26,000 ft (7,925 m), he spotted the two climbing a prominent rock step, either the First or Second Step, about 13:00, although Odell might, conceivably, have been viewing the higher, then-unknown, "Third Step". [28] Odell later reported:

At 12.50, just after I had emerged from a state of jubilation at finding the first definite fossils on Everest, there was a sudden clearing of the atmosphere, and the entire summit ridge and final peak of Everest were unveiled. My eyes became fixed on one tiny black spot silhouetted on a small snow crest beneath a rock step in the ridge the black spot moved. Another black spot became apparent and moved up the snow to join the other on the crest. The first then approached the great rock step and shortly emerged at the top the second did likewise. Then the whole fascinating vision vanished, enveloped in cloud once more. [29]

At the time, Odell observed that one of the men surmounted the Second Step of the northeast ridge. Apart from his testimony, though, no evidence has been found that Mallory and Irvine climbed higher than the First Step one of their spent oxygen cylinders was found shortly below the First Step, and Irvine's ice axe was found nearby in 1933. They never returned to their camp.

Presumably, Mallory and Irvine died either late the same evening or on 9 June. The news of Mallory and Irvine's disappearance was widely mourned in Britain and the two were hailed as national heroes. A memorial service was held in London at St Paul's Cathedral on 17 October and was attended by a great assembly of family, friends, and dignitaries including King George V and members of the royal family, Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald, and his entire Cabinet.

Mallory's will was proven in London on 17 December he bequeathed his estate of £1706 17s. 6d. (roughly equivalent to £98,018 in 2019 [30] ) to his wife. [31]

Lost on Everest for 75 years Edit

After their disappearance, several expeditions tried to find their remains, and perhaps, determine if they had reached the summit. Frank Smythe, when on the 1936 expedition, believed he spotted a body below the place where Irvine's ice axe was found three years earlier, "I was scanning the face from base camp through a high-powered telescope. when I saw something queer in a gully below the scree shelf. Of course, it was a long way away and very small, but I've a six/six eyesight and do not believe it was a rock. This object was at precisely the point where Mallory and Irvine would have fallen had they rolled on over the scree slopes," Smythe wrote in a letter to Edward Felix Norton. He kept the discovery quiet as he feared press sensationalism, and it was not revealed until 2013, after the letter was found by his son when preparing his biography. [32]

In late 1986, Tom Holzel launched a search expedition based on reports from Chinese climber Zhang Junyan that his tent-mate, Wang Hungbao, had stumbled across "an English dead" at 26,570 ft (8,100 m) in 1975. On the last day of the expedition, Holzel met with Zhang Junyan, who reiterated that, despite official denials from the Chinese Mountaineering Association, Wang had come back from a short excursion and described finding "a foreign mountaineer" at "8,100 m." [33] Wang was killed in an avalanche the day after delivering his verbal report, so the location was never more precisely fixed.

In 1999, the Mallory and Irvine Research Expedition, sponsored in part by the TV show Nova and the BBC, and organised and led by Eric Simonson, arrived at Everest to search for the lost pair. Guided by the research of Jochen Hemmleb, within hours of beginning the search on 1 May, Conrad Anker found a frozen body at 26,760 ft (8,157 m) on the north face of the mountain. As the body was found below where Irvine's axe had been found in 1933 at 27,760 ft (8,461.25 m), the team expected it to be Irvine's, and were hoping to recover the camera that he had reportedly carried with him. [34] They were surprised to find that name tags on the body's clothing bore the name of "G. Leigh Mallory." The body was well preserved, due to the freezing conditions. A brass altimeter, a stag-handled lambsfoot pocket knife with leather slip-case, and an unbroken pair of snow-goggles were recovered from the pockets of the clothing. Personal effects, including a letter and a bill from a London supplier of climbing equipment, confirmed the identity of the body. The team could not, however, locate the camera that the two climbers took to document their final summit attempt. [34] Experts from Kodak have said that if a camera is ever found, some chance exists that its film could be developed to produce printable images, if extraordinary measures are taken, and have provided guidance as to handling of such a camera and the film inside, in the event that such were found in the investigation. [35] Before leaving the site of Mallory's death, the expedition conducted an Anglican service for the climber and covered his remains with a cairn on the mountain.

Sir Edmund Hillary, who with Tenzing Norgay is credited with reaching the Everest summit first, welcomed news of the discovery of Mallory's body and described as "very appropriate" the possibility that Mallory might turn out to have summited decades earlier. "He was really the initial pioneer of the whole idea of climbing Mount Everest," Hillary said. [36]

The 1999 research team returned to the mountain in 2001 to conduct further research. [37] They discovered Mallory and Irvine's last camp, but failed to find either Irvine or a camera. [38] Another initiative in 2004 also proved fruitless. [39]

In 2007, the Altitude Everest Expedition, led by Conrad Anker, who had found Mallory's body, tried to retrace Mallory's last steps.

Whether Mallory and Irvine reached Everest's summit is unknown. The question remains open to speculation and is the topic of much debate and research.

Mallory's body Edit

Judging by a serious rope-jerk injury around Mallory's waist, which was encircled by the remnants of a climbing rope, he and Irvine were apparently roped together when one of them slipped. Mallory's body lay 300 meters below and about 100 meters horizontal to the location of an ice axe found in 1933, which is generally accepted from three characteristic marks on the shaft as belonging to Irvine. That the body was relatively unbroken, apart from fractures to the right leg (the tibia and fibula were broken just above the boot), as compared to other bodies in the same location that were known to have fallen from the North-East Ridge, strongly suggests that Mallory could not have fallen from the ice axe site, but must have fallen from much lower down. When found, his body was sun-bleached, frozen, and mummified. [40]

The other significant find on Mallory's body was a severe, golf ball-sized puncture wound in his forehead, the likely cause of his death. The unusual puncture wound is consistent with one inflicted by an ice axe, leading some to conclude that, while Mallory was descending in a self-arrest "glissade", sliding down a slope while dragging his ice axe in the snow to control the speed of his descent, his ice axe may have struck a rock and bounced off, striking him fatally.

Two items of circumstantial evidence from the body suggest that he attempted, or reached, the summit:

  • Mallory's daughter said he carried a photograph of his wife on his person with the intention of leaving it on the summit. The photograph was not found on Mallory's body. Given the excellent preservation of the body, its garments, and other items including documents in his wallet, this points to the possibility that he reached the summit and left the photo there. On the other hand, Wang (who is known to have taken Mallory's ice axe) might also have taken the photograph for identification purposes, and no one who has subsequently reached the summit has reported seeing any evidence of the photograph or any other trace of their presence there. [41]
  • Mallory's unbroken snow goggles were found in his pocket, suggesting that Irvine and he had made a push for the summit and were descending after sunset. On his attempt a few days earlier, Norton had suffered serious snow blindness because he did not wear his goggles, so Mallory would be unlikely to have dispensed with them in daylight, and given their known departure time and movements, it is unlikely that they would have still been out by nightfall had they not attempted the summit pyramid. An alternative scenario is that Mallory carried an extra pair and the pair he was wearing was torn off in his fall.

The difficult "Second Step" Edit

Experienced modern climbers have mixed views on whether Mallory was capable of climbing the Second Step on the North Ridge, now surmounted by a 15 ft (4.6 m) aluminium ladder first permanently fixed in place by Chinese climbers in 1975 to bridge this very difficult pitch. Austrian Theo Fritsche repeated the free climb solo in 2001 under conditions that resembled those encountered during the 1924 Everest expedition, and assessed the climb as having a grade of 5.6–5.7. [42] Fritsche completed the climb without supplementary oxygen and believes that Mallory could, weather permitting, have reached the summit.

In June 2007, as part of the 2007 Altitude Everest expedition, Conrad Anker and Leo Houlding free-climbed the Second Step, having first removed the Chinese ladder (which was later replaced). [43] Houlding rated the climb at 5.9, just within Mallory's estimated capabilities. The climb was part of an expedition which tried to recreate the 1924 climb. Eight years earlier, Anker had climbed the Second Step as part of the Mallory and Irvine Research Expedition, but had used one point of aid by stepping on a rung of the ladder, which blocked the only available foothold. At that time, he had rated the climb at 5.10, which he considered to be beyond Mallory's capabilities, but after the June 2007 climb, he changed his view and said that he "could have climbed it". [44]

Noel Odell believed that he had seen Mallory and Irvine ascend the Second Step, but eventually changed his story to say it was the First Step. Towards the end of his life, however, he reaffirmed his original view. [45] Recent observations taken from Odell's vantage point by other climbers suggest that Odell would have probably seen the men at the Second Step as he had initially reported. [46]

Possible sightings of Irvine Edit

In 1979, a Chinese climber named Wang Hungbao reported to a Japanese expedition leader that, in 1975, he had discovered the body of an "English dead" at 8,100 metres (26,600 ft). Wang was killed in an avalanche the day after this verbal report, so the location was never more precisely fixed. The Chinese Mountaineering Association officially denied the sighting claim. In 1986, Chinese climber Zhang Junyan—who had been sharing the tent with Wang in 1975—confirmed, to Tom Holzel, Wang's report of finding a foreign climber's body. Zhang stated that Wang had been out for only 20 minutes. If this report was accurate, at that altitude and date, the body must have been that of Irvine. [ potreban citat ]

Wang's sighting was the key to the discovery of Mallory's body 24 years later in the same general area, though Wang's reported description of the body he found, face up, with a "hole in cheek", is not consistent with the condition and posture of Mallory's body, which was face down, its head almost completely buried in scree, and with a golf ball-sized puncture wound on his forehead. The 2001 research expedition discovered Wang's campsite location and made an extensive search of its surroundings. Mallory's remained the only ancient body in the vicinity.

In 2001, another Chinese climber, Xu Jing, claimed to have seen the body of Andrew Irvine in 1960—reported in Hemmleb and Simonson's Detectives on Everest—although testimony is uncertain with regard to the location of his find. On two occasions, Xu placed it between Camps VI and VII (the Yellow Band, around 8,300 metres (27,200 ft)), though later changed it to the NE Ridge between the First and Second Steps (near 8,550 metres (28,050 ft) and directly on the NE Ridge. In spite of several such rumoured and reported sightings, subsequent searches of these locations on the North Face have failed to find any trace of Irvine. [ potreban citat ]

American researcher Tom Holzel reported that Xu had spotted the body as he descended "by a more direct route" due to exhaustion, while his teammates had continued their ascent. [47] The body was lying on its back in a narrow slot, its feet pointing towards the summit, and its face blackened from frostbite. Holzel [47] has claimed that a location in the Yellow Band, matching this description exactly, has been identified at 27,641 feet (8,425 m) by his analysis of high-resolution aerial photography.

In July 2005, the Alpine Club of St. Petersburg, Russia, published an article to commemorate the 45th anniversary of the North Face climb by the Chinese expedition in 1960. The article referred to the presentation by Wang Fuzhou—a member of the group which reached the summit of Everest on 25 May 1960—given by him in Leningrad before the USSR Geographical Society in 1965. It claims that Xu Jing had seen the body of a European climber at an altitude of some 8,600 metres (28,200 ft), just below the notorious Second Step. [48]

Theories Edit

A range of different outcomes has been proposed, and new theories continue to be put forward. Most views have the two carrying two cylinders of oxygen each, reaching and climbing either the First or Second Step, where they are seen by Odell. At this point, two main alternatives remain: either Mallory takes Irvine's oxygen and goes on alone (and may or may not reach the summit) or both go on together until they turn back (having used up their oxygen, or realising that they will do so before the summit). In either case, Mallory slips and falls to his death while descending, perhaps caught in the fierce snow squall that sent Odell to take shelter in their tent. Irvine either falls with him, or in the first scenario, dies alone of exhaustion and hypothermia high up on the ridge. The hypothesis advanced by Tom Holzel in February 2008 [49] is that Odell sighted Mallory and Irvine climbing the First Step for a final look around while they were descending from a failed summit bid.

Ang Tsering's assessment Edit

Ang Tsering, a Sherpa member of the 1924 British Everest Expedition, was interviewed in 2000 by Jonathan Neale, who recounted:

Ang Tsering says that what he liked about George Mallory was that he was so friendly. [50]

Climbing partners Edit

Harry Tyndale, one of Mallory's climbing partners, said of Mallory:

In watching George at work, one was conscious not so much of physical strength as of suppleness and balance so rhythmical and harmonious was his progress in any steep place… that his movements appeared almost serpentine in their smoothness. [51]

Geoffrey Winthrop Young, an accomplished mountain climber, held Mallory's ability in awe:

His movement in climbing was entirely his own. It contradicted all theory. He would set his foot high against any angle of smooth surface, fold his shoulder to his knee, and flow upward and upright again on an impetuous curve. Whatever may have happened unseen the while between him and the cliff… the look, and indeed the result, were always the same—a continuous undulating movement so rapid and so powerful that one felt the rock must yield, or disintegrate. [52]

First "real" ascent, or just to the summit? Uredi

If evidence were found that showed that Mallory or Irvine had reached the summit of Everest in 1924, advocates of Hillary and Norgay's first ascent maintain that the historical record should not be changed to state that Mallory and Irvine made the first ascent. 1965 Mount Everest summiteer H. P. S. Ahluwalia claims that without photographic proof, no evidence shows that Mallory reached the summit and "it would be unfair to say that the first man to scale Mount Everest was George Mallory". [53] Mallory's son John Mallory, who was three years old when his father died, said, "To me, the only way you achieve a summit is to come back alive. The job is only half done if you don't get down again". [54] [55] Hillary's daughter, Sarah, when asked about her father's take on the debate, said, "His view was that he had got 50 good years out of being conqueror of Everest, and, whatever happened, he wasn't particularly worried. That's my feeling as well." [56]

Edmund Hillary's assessment Edit

Edmund Hillary echoed John Mallory's opinion, asking:

If you climb a mountain for the first time and die on the descent, is it really a complete first ascent of the mountain? I am rather inclined to think personally that maybe it is quite important, the getting down, and the complete climb of a mountain is reaching the summit and getting safely to the bottom again. [57]

Chris Bonington's assessment Edit

Chris Bonington, the British mountaineer, argued:

If we accept the fact that they were above the Second Step, they would have seemed to be incredibly close to the summit of Everest and I think at that stage something takes hold of most climbers… And I think therefore taking all those circumstances in view… I think it is quite conceivable that they did go for the summit… I certainly would love to think that they actually reached the summit of Everest. I think it is a lovely thought and I think it is something, you know, gut emotion, yes I would love them to have got there. Whether they did or not, I think that is something one just cannot know. [58]

Conrad Anker's assessment Edit

Conrad Anker, who found Mallory's body in 1999, free climbed the Second Step in 2007 and has worn replica 1924 climbing gear on Everest, said he believes it is "possible, but highly improbable, that they made it to the top", citing the difficulty of the Second Step and the position of Mallory's body. He said that, in his opinion:

I don't believe they made it… the climbing up there is so difficult and I think that Mallory was a very good climber and part of being a good climber is knowing when you're at too much of a risk and it's time to turn back. I think he saw that and he turned back and it was either he or Irvine as they were descending the Yellow Band slipped and pulled the other one off, the rope snapped and he came to his rest. [59]

Robert Graves' tale of Mallory's Pipe Edit

Robert Graves, who climbed with Mallory, in his autobiography recounts this story, at the time famous in climbing circles, about an ascent that Mallory made as a young man in 1908:

My friend George Mallory… once did an inexplicable climb on Snowdon. He had left his pipe on a ledge, half-way down one of the Liwedd precipices, and scrambled back by a short cut to retrieve it, then up again by the same route. No one saw what route he took, but when they came to examine it the next day for official record, they found an overhang nearly all the way. By a rule of the Climbers' Club, climbs are never named in honour of their inventors, but only describe natural features. An exception was made here. The climb was recorded as follows: 'Mallory's Pipe, a variation on route 2 see adjoining map. This climb is totally impossible. It has been performed once, in failing light, by Mr G. H. L. Mallory.'. [60]

The route is now called "Mallory's Slab", a hard V Diff on Y Lliwedd. [61]

Mallory was honoured by having a court named after him at his alma mater, Magdalene College, Cambridge, with an inscribed stone commemorating his death set above the doorway to one of the buildings. The Friends of Magdalene Boat Club was renamed the Mallory Club in recognition of his achievements in exploration and rowing at the college. Two high peaks in California's Sierra Nevada, Mount Mallory [62] and Mount Irvine, located a few miles southeast of Mount Whitney, were named after them.

The Times obituary of George Finch called Mallory and Finch the "two best alpinists of [their] time". [63]

Mallory was captured on film by expedition cameraman John Noel, who released his film of the 1924 expedition, The Epic of Everest. [64] Some of his footage was also used in George Lowe's 1953 documentary The Conquest of Everest. A documentary on the 2001 Mallory and Irvine Research Expedition, Found on Everest, was produced by Riley Morton. [65] Mallory was played by Brian Blessed in the 1991 re-creation of his last climb, Galahad of Everest. In Anthony Geffen's 2010 documentary film about Mallory's life and final expedition, The Wildest Dream, Conrad Anker and Leo Houlding attempted to reconstruct the climb, dressed and equipped like Mallory and Irvine.

Everest, a proposed Hollywood version of the 1924 attempt, adapted from Jeffrey Archer's 2009 novel Staze slave, to be directed by Doug Liman, had first Tom Hardy and then Benedict Cumberbatch slated to play Mallory, [66] but a June 2014 interview with Liman implied that the film was no longer in production. [67] In April 2015, it was announced that Michael Sheen would play Mallory in a biopic titled In High Places, to be written and directed by James McEachen, [68] but as of 2020, McEachen's website stated that it had not been funded. [69]

Tragedy in the mountains has proved a recurring theme in the Mallory line. Mallory's younger brother, Air Chief Marshal Sir Trafford Leigh-Mallory, met his death on a mountain range when the Avro York carrying him to his new appointment as Air Commander-in-Chief of South East Asia Command crashed in the French Alps in 1944, killing all on board. [70] A memorial window to George Mallory along with a memorial plaque to Trafford can be found at St Wilfrid's Church, Mobberley, where their father, Herbert, grandfather, also called George, and other family members had served as rector. Mallory's daughter, Frances Clare, married physiologist Glenn Allan Millikan, who was killed in a climbing accident in Fall Creek Falls State Park, Tennessee. [71] [72]

Frances Mallory's son, Richard Millikan, became a respected climber during the 1960s and '70s. Mallory's grandson, also named George Mallory, reached the summit of Everest in 1995 via the North Ridge with six other climbers as part of the American Everest Expedition of 1995. He left a picture of his grandparents at the summit, citing "unfinished business". [72] [73]

Belgian rock band Girls in Hawaii's song "Mallory's Height" on their 2013 album Everest is a homage to Mallory. Extracts of the Nova / BBC broadcast can be heard (around 3:35).


Benson was born on 24 April 1862 at Wellington College, Berkshire. He was one of six children of Edward White Benson (1829-1896 Archbishop of Canterbury 1882–96 the first headmaster of the college) and his wife Mary Sidgwick Benson, sister of the philosopher Henry Sidgwick.

Benson was born into a literary family his brothers included Edward Frederic Benson, best remembered for his Mapp and Lucia novels, and Robert Hugh Benson, a priest of the Church of England before converting to Roman Catholicism, who wrote many popular novels. Their sister, Margaret Benson, was an artist, author, and amateur Egyptologist.

The Benson family was exceptionally accomplished, but their history was somewhat tragic: a son and daughter died young and another daughter, as well as Arthur himself, suffered from a mental condition that was possibly bipolar disorder [2] or manic-depressive psychosis, which they had inherited from their father. None of the children married. [3] Despite his illness, Arthur was a distinguished academic and a prolific author.

From the ages of 10 to 21, he lived in cathedral closes, first at Lincoln where his father was Chancellor of Lincoln Cathedral, and then at Truro, where his father was the first Bishop of Truro. He retained a love of church music and ceremony.

In 1874 he won a scholarship to Eton from Temple Grove School, a preparatory school in East Sheen. In 1881 he went up to King's College, Cambridge, where he was a scholar (King's College had closed scholarships for which only Etonians were eligible) and achieved first class honours in the Classical tripos in 1884. [4]

From 1885 to 1903 he taught at Eton, but returned to Cambridge in 1904 as a Fellow of Magdalene College to lecture in English Literature. He became president of the college (the Master's deputy) in 1912, and he was Master of Magdalene (head of the college) from December 1915 until his death in 1925. From 1906, he was a governor of Gresham's School. [5]

Modern development of Magdalene was shaped by Benson, [4] as a generous benefactor with a marked impact on the appearance of the college grounds at least 20 inscriptions round the college refer to him. [6] In 1930, Benson Court was constructed and named after him. [7]

Benson collaborated with Lord Esher in editing the correspondence of Queen Victoria, which appeared in 1907. [8] His poems and volumes of essays, such as From a College Window i The Upton Letters (essays in the form of letters) were famous in his time and he left one of the longest diaries ever written: some four million words. Extracts from the diaries are printed in Edwardian Excursions. From the Diaries of A. C. Benson, 1898–1904, ed. David Newsome, London: John Murray, 1981. His literary criticisms of Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Edward FitzGerald, Walter Pater and John Ruskin rank among his best work.

Benson wrote the lyrics of the Krunidbena Oda, set to music by Edward Elgar for the 1902 coronation of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra, It has as its finale one of Britain's best-known patriotic songs, "Land of Hope and Glory".

Like his brothers Edward Frederic and Robert Hugh, A. C. Benson was noted as an author of ghost stories. The bulk of his published ghost stories in the two volumes The Hill of Trouble and Other Stories (1903.) i The Isles of Sunset (1904) were written for his pupils as moral allegories. After Arthur's death, Fred Benson found a collection of unpublished ghost stories. He included two of them in a book, Basil Netherby (1927) the title story was renamed "House at Treheale" and the volume was completed by the long piece "The Uttermost Farthing" [9] the fate of the rest of the stories is unknown. Paul the Minstrel and Other Stories (1911, reprinted 1977) collects the contents of The Hill of Trouble and Other Stories i The Isles of Sunset. [10] Nine of Arthur's ghost stories are included in David Stuart Davies (ed), The Temple of Death: The Ghost Stories of A. C. & R. H. Benson (Wordsworth, 2007), together with seven by his brother R. H. Benson, while nine of Arthur's and ten of Robert's are included in Ghosts in the House (Ash-Tree, 1996) the contents of the joint collections are similar but not identical.

In The Schoolmaster, Benson summarised his views on education based on 18 years' experience at Eton. He criticised a tendency, which he found prevalent in English public schools, to "make the boys good and to make them healthy" to the detriment of their intellectual development. [11]

A Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature, he founded the Benson Medal in 1916 "in respect of meritorious works in poetry, fiction, history and belles lettres". [12]


Visit The Old Library at Magdalene College

Thu 3 October 2019 - Thu 5 December 2019

The Old Library, First Court, Magdalene College

Distinct from the Samuel Pepys Library, which is also at Magdalene, the Old Library has housed the historic books of the College in First Court since the fifteenth century, in what was the medieval Prior's residence.

As well as enjoying the historic, book-lined rooms, Visitors will see displays of items from the College's special collectons and archives, which are not normally seen in public.

The Autumn programme of special one-day exhibitions is as follows:

3rd October 2019: TRACES OF ITALY through maps, travel writing and early printed books. This display will reveal some of the plans, accounts and products of Renaissance Italy, from the work of the English cartographer John Speed to volumes on architectural, horticultural and urban design.

7th November 2019: EATING AND DRINKING together as a community has played an important role in the life of Magdalene College through the centuries. This display of archival material and artefacts will examine the history of food and drink in the College.

5th December 2019: INCUNABULA. An exploration of the Old Library’s collection of Incunabula (books printed before 1501) from England and continental Europe, including an early edition of Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales.


We are delighted to announce that our speaker for Easter Term 2017 will be Professor David d’Avray (University College London), who will be addressing us on Tuesday the 25th of April on the topic:

‘Genres as Social Systems in the Middle Ages’

The abstract for the talk is as follows:

In Britain, empirical scholars and theory aficionados sometimes seem to belong to different camps, but their relationship ought to be symbiotic (as it often is in Germany). The loose everyday senses of ‘genre’ are too muddled to be serviceable in the framing of intelligent questions for empirical research, and for more carefully thought out concepts the empirical scholar can learn from literary and social theorists. The paper will introduce some of the ideas about genre of H. R. Jauss, and of N. Luhmann about social systems, and then show the affinities between them. The resulting ‘mise’ of concepts will be used to analyse two medieval genres, the Romance and Canon Law.

David d’Avray is a medievalist who has worked on medieval marriage, on preaching, on attitudes to kingship and death, and on rationalities. He is currently working on royal annulments and papal dispensations, instrumental ethics in the Middle Ages, and ‘longue durée’ structures of papal history, from the 4th century decretal legislation Congregatio Concilii after Trent. His new books Dissolving Royal Marriages: A Documentary History, 860-1600 i Papacy, Monarchy and Marriage, 860-1600 have just been published.

The talk will be held at 6pm in the Parlour, First Court, Magdalene College.


Pogledajte video: ГОРОД КЕМБРИДЖ ДОМА, КВАРТИРЫ И ЖИЗНЬ В КЕМБРИДЖЕ


Komentari:

  1. Mukhwana

    Curious, is there an analogue?

  2. Garlan

    Posebno je registrovan na forumu da vam se zahvalim za savjet. Kako da ti zahvalim?

  3. Girflet

    čini mi se da je ovo veličanstvena ideja

  4. Bird

    Mislim, dozvoljavaš grešku. Uđite, razgovaraćemo o tome. Pišite mi na PM.



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